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Jewish History

This very brief treatise concerns Jewish History during the Sixth Century B.C.E. as it relates to the change in human philosophy from multiple gods and goddesses to something resembling true philosophy, i.e. “1 the use of reason and argument in seeking knowledge and truth or reality, esp. of the causes and nature of things and of the principles governing existence, the material universe, perception of physical phenomena, and human behavior. 2 a a particular system or set of beliefs reached by this. b a personal rule of life.” [1]  

Specifically, Laurence Gardner, author of Bloodline of the Holy Grail, Genesis of the Grail Kings, and Realm of the Ring Lords has noted the following [2]:  

“Historically, what happened from 603 BC was the Babylonian invasion of Samaria, Judah and Galilee - with the resultant termination of the traditional Jerusalem kings. A reason had to be found to justify this significant loss, so it was then that the idea of their being the One God's 'chosen people' arose.  That way, they could relinquish the responsibility of their personal failure to the Will of God, and they wrote up the story accordingly.  

“At the same time, it had always been a point of contention that for 300 years from around 1360 BC, the Israelite armies (out of Egypt) had swept through Palestine (Canaan), hounding and slaughtering the Palestinian (Philistine) inhabitants to eventually take over the land.  From their new 6th-century BC perspective, however, they were enabled to vindicate themselves from this brutal history by declaring that Moses, Joshua, etc. were also carrying out the Will of God in seizing their Promised Land - a term that was never used, nor conceived until about 500 BC.  

“There was also a significant difference between the Israelites and Hebrews before c.1200 BC.  The Israelites were the marauding descendants of Israel who had come out of Egypt, and the Hebrews were one of the Palestinian tribes which they overthrew and subsumed into their culture.  Not until they returned to Judah from Babylonian captivity c.536 BC did the Israelites and Hebrews join forces to become simply Judaeans (i.e. Jews).  It was then that the Prophets emerged - essentially to calm the political waters so as to convey the ideal to the people that all would be well in the future.  

“Judah was then under control of the Persian Empire, so the Jews could not reinstate a king in Jerusalem.  The best they could do was to have wise men - seers who could promise that God was still on their side.  Then in 322 BC, the Macedonians defeated the Persians and Alexander the Great took control of Palestine.  The prophets were proved to have been wrong; the Jews continued as subordinate subjects and, since the Old Testament compilers could find no way to justify their position any further, that's precisely where the Old Testament stops - just prior to 332 BC.  

“Following that (in the 300+ years period between the Old and New Testaments) Palestine came under Syrian control.  They were defeated by the Hasmonaean Maccabees in 141 BC, who were ousted by the Romans in 44 BC.  The Jewish story then re-emerges with a whole set of new promises of a messianic saviour who would gain back the Promised Land.  Later, the Romans were ousted by the Turks, whom the Christian crusaders endeavoured to overthrow in later times - and so the Jerusalem story continues.  

“In summary, Noah, Abraham and the patriarchs were all part of the original Elohim/ Anunnaki culture and knew nothing about the One God ideal that was to be invented and thrust upon their memory centuries later.  Early Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and other religious bases also became more tightly formulated and defined from around 600 B.C.E. for the same reasons of control by the outward spread of the empires - Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian and Roman.  People of the occupied lands began to get very philosophical - looking for reasons for their subjugation, and looking inwardly for the community identities which they had lost in terms of birthright, but could perhaps reinstate by way of fraternal religion.”  

This perspective of a critical time in Jewish history (technically, the beginning of Jewish history) must always be understood in the context of events and occurrences in the world around Israel and the Middle East.  Specifically it must be noted that Lao Tzu, et al were also forming at this juncture of ancient history the basis of true philosophical thought (i.e. something substantially more than simply a religion of Gods and Goddesses directing by whim human beings and their activities).  Older religions such as Hinduism were also adding or reformulating their foundations of thought in order to incorporate similar ideas.   

In addition, the preceding history of those who came to be known as the Jews is also obviously of fundamental significance.  Presented below as an appendix is a reconstructed dating of some of the events involving the ancestors of the Jewish people.  

Finally, the realization that the Torah (aka, the Pentateuch, or the first five books of the Bible’s Old Testament -- which was traditionally ascribed to Moses) was written in the Sixth Century B.C.E., is also highly significant.  The fact that these five books also contain elements of Sacred Geometry (including the fact the language itself conforms to the Geometry of Alphabets) is simply icing on the cake.  


Chinese History         Age of Pisces         600 B.C.E.

Forward to:

Some Biblical Law         Hinduism         Taoism         History 009



[1]  Complete Wordfinder, Reader’s Digest, 1996.

[2]  Laurence Gardner, private communication.  


Back Dating Jewish History  

[The earlier dates derive from the time of Solomon, with various assumptions thrown in.  The backdating from known periods is based on numerous assumptions, but the history can also be read from the bottom up, i.e. in chronological order.]  

B.C.E.  Event  

333      End of the Old Testament  

536     The return to Judah from Babylonian captivity.  This led, after a second return (the first being the aftermath of the Exodus), to the concept of the Promised Land.  

600 - 500 The historical documentation (and thus the justification of much of their bloody history) of the people who came to be known as the Jewish people.  

603      The Babylonian invasion of Judah.  If this date corresponds to the beginning of the Age of Pisces -- and the assumption of command over Earthly affairs by the Anunnaki’s Enki -- then the withdrawal of Enlil from the Enki and Enlil conflict may have left the Jews without an influential friend at the court of the ruling Gods and Goddesses.  And thus the Babylonians (having just been under the influence of Marduk, Enki’s son) were essentially allowed carte blanche in dealing with their neighbors.  

923    Death of Solomon.  Date is based on Immanuel Velikovsky’s Reconstruction (as per Holbrook's interpretation).  Encyclopaedia Britannica [1966 Edition] assumes an earlier date of 937, after a 37 year reign (beginning ostensibly in 974).  

960    Solomon assumes Kingship in Jerusalem (Velikovsky's date).  Zecharia Sitchin sets this date at 963 B.C.E., while Encyclopaedia Britannica figures c. 974 B.C.E.  

1000    David begins a reign of 40 years -- 33 in Jerusalem [I Chronicles 29:26-27].  

1022    Saul begins reign (Encyclopaedia Britannica), or possibly 11 years later (1014 -- according to Sitchin).  Saul unites Kingdom.  [1013 is the tentative date for the beginning of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, under Ahmose I, who, according to Immanuel Velikovsky, had been helped by Saul in the siege of Avaris!  This would be after Saul had conquered the Amelekites (the Hyksos-Amu of Egypt's Second Intermediate Period).  1013 is also the Beginning of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt.  Note that Manetho referred to “the king who expelled the pastoral people from Egypt in a section devoted to the Pharaohs of the 18th dynasty”, i.e. the expulsion of the Hyksos (the Asiatic “Shepherd Kings”).  Sitchin's date of Saul is therefore probably wrong, because it is unlikely Saul would have been helping Ahmose I, after being on the throne for only a year or so.  

1030    David is born.  “David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.” [2 Samuel 5:4]           

1091    17th Dynasty of Egypt (contemporaneous with Hyksos dynasties).  Kamose, one of the latter Pharaohs, waged a liberation war against the Hyksos!           

1250    Hyksos arrive as 15th and 16th dynasties, relocate capital to Avaris on the delta.  There were 6 “Great Hyksos” and 8 “Little Hyksos”.  [The littles being part of the 17th?]           

1400    The Israelites, after 40 years in the wilderness, began the conquest of Palestine, overthrowing and subsuming the Hebrews, the latter being one of the tribes in residence at the time.  Technically, this invasion of Palestine was the second one, with Abraham having arrived (invaded?) from Sumerian regions roughly 700 years earlier.  Gardner (see above) assumes that the Israelites charged out of Egypt “around 1360 BC”.  Archaeological evidence points to the conquest of Jerico between 1400 and 1385 B.C.E.   [Zecharia Sitchin, Wars of Gods and Men, pg 287].  After 40 years of wandering, this dates the Exodus to between 1440 and 1425 B.C.E.  {This assumes 40 years is specific, and is not the traditional  measure of a “long time”.}  

1433    13th and 14th dynasty and Second Intermediate Period of Egypt  

1440    The year of the Exodus of the Jews out of Egypt.  (Or possibly 7 years later, i.e. 1433.) “And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord.”  [I Kings 6:1]  “And he began to build in the second day of the second month, in the fourth year of his reign.” [2 Chronicles 3:2]  I.e. 963 - 3 + 480 = 1440 (Velikovsky)  or 974 - 3 + 480 = 1451 (Encyclopaedia Britannica).  

            As quoted by Josephus in Against Apion, Manetho stated that “after the blasts of God's displeasure broke upon Egypt.” a Pharaoh named Toumosis negotiated with the Shepherd People, “the People from the east, to evacuate Egypt and go whither they would, unmolested.”  They then left and traversed the wilderness, “and built a city in a country now called Judaea... and gave it the name Jerusalem.”  But, according to Zecharia Sitchin, Josephus may have adjusted his writings of Manetho to suit the biblical tale [Zecharia Sitchin, Wars of Gods and Men, Avon Books, New York, page 287].   

            Theophilus, a second-century Bishop of Antioch, also referred to Manetho and stated that the Hebrews were enslaved by the king Tethmosis, for whom they “built strong cities, Peitho and Rameses and On, which is Heliopolis”; then they departed Egypt under the Pharaoh “whose name was Amasis.”  Both Tethmosis, the Pharaoh “who knew not Joseph” [Exodus 1:8], and Amasis may have been Pharaohs of the 13th dynasty.                         

            Sitchin [The War of Gods and Men, pages 136-137] argues that it was Thothmes III (son of a harem girl) who was the Tethmosis who enslaved the Hebrews, and then died in 1450 B.C.  Thothmes III was followed on the throne by Amenophis II, whom Sitchin claims is the Amasis of the Exodus.  Amenophis II  reigned from 1450 to 1425 (8 years after Sitchin's Exodus date of 1433).  Obviously, this dating does not come close to 400 years of bondage!  Sitchin also wants Queen Hatshepsut to be Moses' foster mother, but the fact she was strong enough to keep Thothmes II and III in line for years, suggests she could have done with Moses pretty much whatever she willed.  Thothmes I was also a warrior of some renown (Queen Hatshepsut's hubby), but he did nothing with the Hebrews.  Only Thothmes was worried about the "Israelites" siding with the enemy.  

            Finally, “There had been twelve priestly generations, of forty years each [i.e. 12 x 40 = 480  years] from the Exodus to the time when Azariah 'executed the priestly office in the temple that Solomon built in  Jerusalem' [1 Chronicles 5:36].”  Inasmuch as it took seven years to complete the temple: 963 - 10 + 480 = 1433  or  1444.  

1520    Moses born.  (Moses was 80 years old at time of Exodus [Exodus 7:7].  (Aaron 83.) There is a 250 years gap between Genesis and Exodus!  Is this Egypt's First Intermediate Period and the chaos that ensued?           

1638    Beginning of Egypt’s Twelfth Dynasty.  This was a time of prosperity, a golden age, and the move of the capital to Thebes.             

1687    Mentuhotep II (11th dynasty) unifies Egypt, expels Asians from delta, reopens Punt trade, and invades Nubia.  [Punt may be Israel.  This may also be the Pharaoh who “knew Joseph.”  (Or it might have been one of the unnamed pharaohs of the 11th dynasty.  Possibly one named Tethmosis!  Someone may have been worried about the Jews, and their earlier loyalties to their god, Enlil.  Tethmosis would thus have been earlier!]      

1770    Joseph dies at age 110.  (70 years after Jacob's arrival in Egypt and 80 years after first appearing before Pharaoh -- see 1840.)           

1780    Beginning of Middle Kingdom in Egypt, Eleventh Dynasty.           

1792 -- 1750:  Hammurabi rules in Babylon.  [This period is significant inasmuch as the law promulgated by Hammurabi was a fundamental turning point -- changing the Nature of Law from that of doing what is right and readdressing injuries (Restorative Justice), to specific punishments for specific violations of the law.  The latter then instills the idea of punitive retribution for breaking any statute, without regard to whether or not someone or something was injured, or to compensating the victims for their loss.]

1836    Seven years of Famine END.  Yea.  

1840    The arrival of Jacob and family into Egypt.  Hebrew Tradition attributes a stay of 400 years, based on the Lord’s statement to Abraham: “...and they shall afflict them four hundred years.” [Genesis 15:13], as well as the statement: “...they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years.” [Act 7:6]   

            It should be noted that Exodus 12:40-41 states: “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.”  If the latter includes 30 years for Joseph's stay in Egypt, there is no problem -- but does require Joseph arriving in Egypt at age 10.  The latter is based on Joseph going before Pharaoh at age 30, 7 years of plenty, 2 years of famine before Jacob sends his sons to Egypt for food, and possibly another year, before Jacob makes the trip to Egypt.  Thus Jacob arrives in Egypt just in time for Joseph's fortieth birthday.  Counting back 30 years, implies Joseph went to Egypt at age ten, worked his way up to head servant, then prison for a minimum of two years (Joseph had time to become good friends with the head guard and the Wine Steward waited over two years before mentioning Joseph to the Pharaoh).  Certainly plausible.  

1841    Jacob gets hungry and sends sons for food (2nd year of famine), then gets hungry again.  (The first "take out" was probably Chinese food, which is why he would be hungry again.)  

1843    Seven Years of Famine begins.  Oops.  

1850    Joseph goes before Pharaoh (Age 30), and Seven Years of Plenty begins.  

1855    Joseph goes to prison (based on 2+ years in prison, plus becoming servant of head guy).  

1870    Joseph sold into slavery, goes to Egypt (based on his being 10 at time: 1880 - 10).  

1880    Joseph born.  (Based on his being 40 when Jacob arrived in Egypt (1840 + 40).

1940    Jacob has a UFO experience [See Zecharia Sitchin, The 12th Planet, Avon Books, New York, 1976, pgs 136-137] -- before working for 14 years, and having ten kids before Joseph - adults when Joseph still 10? (and Joseph born when Jacob was 90 years old).  

1970    Jacob was born.  Jacob was 130 years upon arriving in Egypt [Genesis 47:9]  Jacob died at age 147, after having lived in Egypt for 17 years.  

2000    Approximate end of Sumerian Civilization, following the fallout (literally) of events at Sodom and Gomorrah.  Sitchin [The Wars of Gods and Men, Avon Books, New York, 1985] assumes a date of 2023.  

2030    Isaac was born.  Isaac was 60 years old when Jacob was born [Genesis 25:26].

2130    Abraham was born.  Abraham was 100 when Isaac was born [Genesis 21:5]  

For further extrapolations, see The Adam's Family chronicles for earlier patriarchs.



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