The Fifth Element
A Connecting Link Between New Science,
Sacred Geometry, Anomalous Events, and Consciousness
By means of a simplified extension of Classical Mechanics and Electromagnetics, it is possible to theoretically postulate an “over-unity” energy system which requires no fuel of any kind, and, simultaneously, a propulsion system which requires no propellant mass.
The energy system need not burn, transform, or otherwise modify a fuel -- and thus there are no waste products, i.e. pollution. The propulsion system would actually transcend so-called “anti-gravity” systems or Levitation devices by virtue of the fact the new Inertial Propulsion system does not require a gravity field (such as the Earth) in order to achieve significant propulsive thrust. In both cases, by the “simple” expedient of tweaking the rest of the universe in a clever way, unlimited amounts of energy and thrust may be obtained.
This combination of an advanced energy and propulsion system, which would, among other things, enormously simplify space travel to the planets and beyond, is a direct result of assuming one additional term (i.e. a Fifth Element) in the equations of classical mechanics and/or electromagnetics. The Fifth Element depends upon the rate of change of acceleration in mechanical systems (acceleration of current in electromagnetic circuitry) as well as a time constant which is related to the apparent size of the system in question. The larger the time constant and/or the greater the rate of change of acceleration -- i.e. the more radical the change of pace -- the greater the effect.
Simultaneously, the same mathematics which demonstrate the reality of over-unity energy systems and inertial propulsion systems, also provide insight into the manner in which all aspects of the universe are connected, and furthermore, show that there are no upper limits to the available flow of energy via such connections. The mathematics are in fact a potentially quantitative restatement of what many of us have experienced numerous times in our lives. Such experiences include everything from consciousness and creativity to spoon bending, homeopathy, chiropractic and other health practices, to karate, Crop Circles, and tornadoes -- as well as free energy and advanced propulsion systems! In fact, all of the above constitutes in part demonstrable verification of the mathematical theory.
Physical theories are nothing more than succinct mathematical approximations of reality. These approximations are in turn limited by the theory’s basic Assumptions (which may be stated or unstated). Unfortunately, these limiting, fundamental assumptions upon which much of physics depends are not always inclusive of the diversity of physical reality. Assumptions are clearly a fundamental aspect of what physicists like to call “The Laws of Physics”, but all too often the assumptions are not stated explicitly with the law. This omission often results in a misinterpretation of the law, or a faulty assumption as to the applicability of the law in certain cases. The Laws of Thermodynamics are a noteworthy case in point, as are the Assumptions of Classical Mechanics.
In the realm of applicability where Classical Mechanics is still considered valid (i.e. non-relativistic situations), the premier example of this branch of physics, Newton’s Laws, are technically bound by certain assumptions. These include the fact that Newton’s Laws are only applicable to a mass without dimensions (i.e. a point mass) and one which is a rigid body. A second, perhaps more fundamental assumption is that the action-reaction of the Third Law is simultaneous. As it turns out, none of these assumptions are valid in many cases, and in general are only approximations -- albeit, some of the approximations can be entirely sufficient for many practical applications.
The assumption of absolute time (or simultaneity) when the action is at a distance is the critical factor. In general, the “reaction” of a body to an externally applied force can not be initiated simultaneously with the initial application (“action”) of the external force. This lack of simultaneity is due in part to the limitations of speed to below that of light (from electromagnetic theory) and in some cases below that of the speed of sound for mechanical systems. This profound restriction on Newton’s Laws brings time into the equation -- for example, a sudden surge (an “action”) of electrical current along a conductor will also result in an equal and opposite “reaction” -- but not simultaneously!
Even more noteworthy is the fact that sudden and abrupt physical acts or intuitive realizations follow the same framework. The point to be emphasized here is the laws of mechanics are applicable in the electromagnetic realm and vice versa, and that mechanics, electromagnetism, other areas of physics, everyday experiences, creativity, and consciousness are not separate or unrelated, but wholly interconnected.
Connective Physics can, in general, be viewed as an extension of Classical Mechanics and/or Electromagnetism. The theory is based upon the addition of a single linear term, or element, to the traditional equations in order to account for extreme and abrupt (or sudden changes) in the rate of acceleration in either a particle or charge (or a larger collection of the same). Classical mechanics and electrodynamics utilize the same form of differential equations -- a significant factor in the commonality of the so-called different fields of physics. The addition of a single linear term was first introduced by Davis [1, 2, 3], and discussed by Stine [4, 5], and effectively transformed the relevant equations from second order differential equations into third order differential equations.
A sampling of these equations are shown in the Mathematical Theory, along with technical comments on the Conservation of Energy, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and a host of other related physical theories and experimental realizations. Interpretations of the theory are discussed here in some detail, but in a non-mathematical format. In this regard, for an essential understanding of the theory, it is sufficient to recognize the nature of what amounts to five entities or elements within those equations.
For example, each of the equations include an element (1) which is the initiation upon a system of a force (be it mechanical, electromagnetic, or otherwise -- i.e. an “initiating action”). This force is fundamentally oscillating or cyclical in nature. In fact, all dynamic systems in physics and engineering are cyclical in nature (or can be approximated as such with the proper mathematics). Fundamentally, the universe is based on Cycles, be they collections of trigonometric sine waves, or the business and stock market varieties.
The equations of classical mechanics and electrodynamics also involve three other elements, in addition to the first element; which in mechanics, include: (2) position (and the tendency to return to that position; as in a pendulum or spring), (3) resistance to motion (said motion being velocity or speed related), and (4) mass (or inertia), which is associated with acceleration.
In electrodynamics, specifically electrical circuits, the corresponding terms are: (1) electromagnetic force, (2) electrical charge (or capacitance), (3) resistance to current (or resistance to charge in motion), and (4) inductance, associated with the change in current or the acceleration of charge. For our purposes, we will view these first four elements as Force, Capacitance, Resistance, and Inertia (in their broadest possible sense).
In Connective Physics, a “Fifth Element” is added. If Capacitance, Resistance, and Inertia are representative of position (of a mass or electrical charge), change of position, and rate of change of position, the Fifth Element constitutes the rate of the rate of change of position (alternatively, the rate of change in acceleration in a mechanical system). In an electrical circuit, the Fifth Element is the acceleration of current (where current is in turn the rate of change of charge with respect to time).
The addition of this Fifth Element is in sharp contrast to the classical version where the time delay between the initiation of an action and the occurrence of a resulting reaction has been implicitly assumed to be zero. This Time Delay is physically significant in any system where there is a sudden or abrupt action and/or where the system by its size or nature is slow to react.
For example, if one wants to grab a tiger by the tail without any subsequent negative effects, this could be easily done if one is able to accomplish this before the “system”, i.e. the tiger, can react by keeping his tail out of your reach. Obviously, the “system” can be viewed as including the tiger’s response after you have a hold of his tail, i.e. the “larger system of the tiger’s retribution”. But if one is able, for example, to move faster than the tiger, even the “larger system” can be exited before a reaction hits home, so to speak. In effect, “You can get away with anything provided you don’t get caught while you’re doing it, and you leave the system immediately thereafter!” 
In the same fashion, unlimited energy can be obtained from the universe for free provided that the means of extracting it does so in a manner which precludes having to pay the price of the reacting forces. The same can be said for intuitive insights, health treatments which connect with the rest of the universe, and other experiences. The Fifth Element is thus the mathematical representation of the results of a sudden impulse -- in whatever form it manifests -- and the potential ability to avoid, at least in part, the price to pay for having the impulse imposed in the first place.
The theory of the Fifth Element and its differential equations (as described in the section on Mathematical Theory) -- along with their five elements -- can be used to determine the energy flow within a system. When this is done, we can obtain five expressions for the power or energy flow (per unit time) -- each expression determined by the nature of the elements: Force, Capacitance, Resistance, Inertia, and Time Delay (the latter being the essence of the Fifth Element.)
The first four of these elements yield expressions fully in accord with mainstream physics. For example, the Capacitance and Inertia terms, have very similar expressions, and essentially trade energy with one another. In an electrical circuit, this is the fluctuating power between the inductive (magnetic) and capacitive (electric) elements in the circuit.
The Resistance term is also as expected from classical theory, but is distinct from the Capacitance and Inertia elements by the fact that the power associated with Resistance is one-directional. Known in electricity as i2 R heating, the Resistance element always acts as a load, generating heat and effectively radiating this energy to the external world. Critically important, the direction of the energy flow is FROM the circuit TO the outside world, i.e. TO the rest of the universe. This does not change.
The Time Delay, on the other hand, is something quite phenomenal! The mathematical form of the Time Delay element is in essence identical in form to the Resistance element -- except for an all important change in sign. If we assume the Time Delay factor (and the inductance or mass) to be positive quantities (which in anything remotely resembling classical or modern theories is true), then the Time Delay element implies nothing less than that there is a rate of energy being supplied TO the circuit FROM the external world!
In physics, there is the potential for “resonance” in any dynamic system -- be it mechanical or electromagnetic. Resonance events can occur in virtually any system, and are regularly encountered in “transient” events (as opposed to “steady state”). Engineers and scientists have traditionally avoided transient events like the plague -- inasmuch as these things tend to “blow up” -- and thus have made it an article of faith among the purveyors of physics and science’s practical applications to find ways to reach the steady state condition as rapidly as possible. The reality, however, is that it’s in the transient conditions that the action really exists and where there is the potential for unlimited benefits. It just takes a bit more care in achieving and handling the results.
Mathematically, resonance occurs when a denominator term anywhere in the equations goes to a minimum (or zero), thus implying a maximum (including infinity) for the term as a whole. In the equations of classical mechanics and electromagnetics, terms within the denominator can in fact go to zero, but the denominator itself never goes to zero. This is because of the “Resistance” term, which can never be zero, and which can not be countered by another term. This is all in accordance with mainstream physics.
In Connective Physics, however, the Resistance element can be countered by the Time Delay element (i.e. due to the addition of the Fifth Element). Thus, under certain circumstances, the entire denominator in the expression can in fact go to zero, and thus yield an “infinite” answer. In effect, there is no limit to the response of the system!
This potential for resonance, when combined with the universal connectedness of the energy flow (described above), implies that there is apparently no limit in the rate or amount of energy which might be supplied by the external world to the system.
In effect, the Time Delay Fifth Element might very well be an infinitely sized, universal source of energy and power! And similar to the Resistance term, it is limited strictly to one direction of energy flow. It’s just that for the Fifth Element the flow is from the universe to the local system.
Furthermore, the addition of a Time Delay Fifth Element implies that an electrical circuit (or mechanical system or any other physical system) is NOT isolated from the rest of the universe, and that the law of conservation of energy in a closed system is inapplicable in that the “system” now constitutes the entire universe!
Scientific and Mathematical Connections
In delving into the equations of Connective Physics, numerous connections become noteworthy. One example is to mathematically assume a zero Resistance and an unlimited Capacitance. This might be related to the real, practical world of reducing one’s tendency to resist outside forces (on the basis of “resistance is the cause of pain”), and at the same time to assume an unlimited capacitance of the universe in providing for any and all needs. While in real physical systems (and possibly mental and emotional ones as well) there is always some resistance and a finite capacitance, we can always look at such small effects as acting as minor corrections, modifications, or perturbations. Mathematically, we can make the assumption of zero resistance and infinite capacitance and then consider that this is the ideal to which we aspire (but do not necessarily ever quite achieve).
The assumption of a zero resistance and infinite capacitance leads quite simply to solutions to the equations which yield as their roots the numbers 0.618033987... and 1.618033987... i.e. the Transcendental Numbers associated with the Golden Mean (or Golden Ratio) of Sacred Geometry. In this manner, quite surprisingly, the equations of Connective Physics are seen to connect in a straightforward manner with the elements of geometry on its most fundamental level.
Sacred Geometry relates in turn to philosophy, nature, the human body, and what is becoming increasingly appreciated as the most fundamental aspect of human existence. What was recognized in ancient times, is undergoing a resurgence of enthusiasm, and in the process allowing for an understanding of the phrase, “the universe is geometry.”
In Astronomy, the orbits of all of the planets of our solar system, for example, are related by sacred geometry. This can be seen in the Harmony of the Spheres (or graphically in A Book of Coincidence), where even the sizes of the planets are connected in this manner. The latter refers specifically to the fact that the ratio of the orbit and size of Earth to that of Mercury’s size and orbit have the same Golden Ratio connection. Earth and Saturn’s orbits and sizes are also both connected by the same geometry.
The appearances of Crop Circles have also shown a heavy influence on geometry. But in this case, the apparent construction of anomalous crop circles (those not obviously made by humans) also appears to depend upon the sudden bending of stalks without breaking the stems. Typically, this involves an “explosion” in the nodes of the plant, such that a ninety degree right angle is “easily” attained without disturbing the plant’s ability to continue to grow (albeit now horizontally). This bending without the reaction of breaking is just one of many manifestations of the Fifth Element.
A basic aspect of Connective Physics is the time delay between action and reaction. This leads to the idea of an Advanced Propulsion System which achieves an “action” (a forward thrust) without requiring an equal reaction in the opposite direction. Effectively this reduces the need for what is referred to as “reaction mass” or “propellant.” In effect, nothing has to be forced in one direction in order to achieve thrust in the opposite direction. There is no water for an oar to push against, no air for a propeller to push against, and no rocket propellant thrown backwards upon which the rocket ship pushes against. Instead, an advanced propulsion system uses inertia, and indirectly, inertia’s connection to the rest of the universe, for its motive force. (The latter inertial connection is part and parcel of Mach’s Principle.)
Over-Unity Energy Systems are those systems where the efficiency of a mechanical or electromagnetic device exceeds 100%, i.e. greater than 1.00. This implies obtaining more energy from a system than is input to the system in order to cause it to function. Connective Physics allows for the possibility of such a system, whereby the act of tweaking the universe in just the right manner provides for unlimited amounts of energy to be transferred from the universe to the local system in order to be used in what ever manner seems appropriate. Numerous Over-Unity, “Free Energy” or “Space Energy” systems have been suggested, and are discussed separately under Zero-Point Energy.
Hyperdimensional Physics is the inclusion of additional spatial dimensions in our current theories of physics -- just as the more in-fad theories of Superstrings involving anything from 10 to 27 dimensions -- and can be shown to result in the potential of tapping into the Zero-Point Energy and achieving over-unity energy systems. Hyperdimensional Physics, in particular, involves an always changing configuration of the dynamical system, and while many of the changes in planetary or solar activity may appear to have very long time periods associated with them, the size of the systems -- and thus the ability for one system to respond to another -- are (quite literally) astronomical! (pardon the pun) Thus, the Fifth Element term, which involves both the quickness of an action, and the time delay to precipitate a reaction, is likely to be involved in this branch of physics as well.
Sonoluminesence is an anomaly where air bubbles in water subjected to sound waves have been found to generate light. The light emission occurs whenever the air bubbles collapse. Notably, the collapse of the bubbles involve enormous accelerations and rates of acceleration changes. It seems highly likely that the phenomena of sonoluminesence involves the Fifth Element of Connective Physics and may represent an over-unity energy source. In other physical experiments involving cavitation (the collapse of bubbles on propellers or other moving objects in water), over-unity energy production has been suggested as well, and Connective Physics tends to also explain these facts.
Given the above scientific and mathematical demonstrations, whereby access to a universal energy source is both possible and potentially unlimited, we can also consider if this mathematical theory is supported by experiential physics -- i.e. the kind of situations any of us might encounter in the daily course of our lives. For example:
Tornadoes. In the aftermath of the tremendous winds of a tornado, discoveries of pieces of straw embedded vertically in plates of steel have been encountered. If one thinks in terms of the “difficulty” of penetrating a steel plate with a piece of straw, there would be a tendency to dismiss the possibility out of hand. But if the straw arrives at the plate with sufficient speed, and penetrates the steel plate before the plate can react to the straw (and thus bending or breaking the straw), then the possibility becomes a distinct possibility. The solution to the possible enigma is that the straw “entered the system” and embedded itself before the “system of the steel plate” could react. Significantly, the straw undergoes an enormous deceleration -- a radical change of pace -- and it is this change of pace which makes the Fifth Element term large in comparison to the other elements.
Hammering. When one hammers a nail, a curious, typically unconscious aspect of the act is that after bringing down the hammer on the nail head, the hand will suddenly and automatically loosen its grip on the hammer the split second before the hammer hits the nail. This results in protecting the hand from the jarring effect of the hammer hitting the nail (i.e. the reaction -- leaving the system to avoid paying the price). The alternative is to feel the full impact, a thoroughly unpleasant effect -- which we’ve learned instinctively to avoid. The effect is even more noticeable when wielding a sledge hammer!
Spoon Bending. A key element in the rather esoteric ritual of spoon bending is that the practitioner accomplishes the actual feat in a very brief time. After massaging the spoon for some time, the individual will often feel a brief, subtle, and sudden intuition of “now!”. If the persons reacts accordingly, the spoon is quite literally formed into a metal pretzel. If, on the other hand, there is hesitation, the moment is lost and the spoon keeps its original shape. The key is the sudden impulse (at just the appropriate moment)... And perhaps the consciousness of the individual (see below).
Homeopathy and Chiropractic. In the process of preparing a homeopathic remedy by repeated dilutions, a common practice is hitting the resulting vial against one’s palm for a specific number of times. In effect, the vial is being “hammered” or “impulsed” in accord with the tenants of Connective Physics, and thus connecting with the universe at large as part of its procedures. The same conditions exist in Chiropractic circles, where the practitioner jerks or provides a sudden impact to the spine or other body parts in order to correct a misalignment or unbalance within the body.
Head Banging. A popular new technique in the movies is the banging of heads in order to knock one person unconscious, while the initiator of the action escapes without so much as a headache. This appears totally nonsensical to the average scientist (except in Movieland), but in fact is entirely plausible. If the initiator of the head banging does his deed by hitting the other person’s head and very quickly retracting his head, he can avoid the “equal and opposite reaction” of the other person’s hard skull, and thus accomplish his nefarious deed without pain. Meanwhile, the other person receives the full brunt of the banging. Such a process might seem decidedly a movie gimmick, except for Karate. I.e.
Karate. A typical demonstration of Karate is the use of one’s unprotected fist to break a concrete block. An essential element of Karate is the use of sudden force which is very quickly retracted (as distinct from a “follow through” hit where the fist continues in the direction of the object.) In effect, the Karate hit enters the system, does the damage, and then exits before the system can fully react and impart a reaction hit upon the fist. This not only increases the power of the hit (doubling the effective impact by doubling the rate of acceleration of the fist), but saves the fist from whatever “retribution” the struck object might inflict via an action-reaction scenario.
Bruce Lee. Easily the most famous artisan of the martial arts, Bruce Lee has been known to send opponents flying fifteen feet with the movement of one of his fists only moving an inch or two toward the unfortunate recipient of his supposed wrath, and quickly retracting in order to avoid the backlash of the action. The mathematics of Connective Physics seems to explain Bruce Lee’s prowess as well. However, there might be a bit more to it. For example, his state of mind, i.e. consciousness, what might be termed the Bruce Lee Effect.
Consciousness. The apparent universal connection of an individual consciousness to other individual consciousnesses -- as described countless times outside of this website, as well as briefly in ESP -- suggests a connection between this fundamental aspect of human existence with the Fifth Element. Connective Physics, for examples, implies the absence of closed systems in the classical sense (except those, possibly, the size of the universe). In other words, all things are connected, including thoughts. In addition, individual consciousness can be described as taking unconnected and chaotic properties and then correlating them into an ordered structure. Consciousness is thus anti-entropic to the extent of the universe being anti-entropic. Both consciousness and Connective Physics can thus be construed to have the same universal anti-entropic properties -- i.e. both allow for an increase in the order of local systems (instead of the Entropy requirement of a decrease of order in any “closed system”).
We might also note that Arthur Young  refers to what we have termed the Fifth Element (or the mathematical third differential term) as “control”, and in doing so implies strongly that consciousness is the fundamental aspect of the physics’ added term. We would be in strong agreement with Mr. Young.
Conclusion and Applications
Based on the gamut of the mathematical results (most of which are not shown in detail in this brief treatise, but are included in Mathematical Theory and More Math), we can summarize the following postulates regarding a few of the key aspects of any physical or other action:
1) The universe always contributes (i.e. is always connected energetically).
2) At steady state conditions, the universe’s contribution is extremely small (becoming neglectable after long periods of steady state behavior).
3) Change or transient conditions implies an increased universal contribution (i.e. when change is initiated, the universe responds accordingly).
4) The universal contribution is dependent upon the degree of change initiated -- the greater the change, the greater the universe’s contribution.
5) The greater the rate of change, the greater the universe’s contribution.
6) The system Time Delay (which is dependent upon both the size of the system and the transmitability of information within the system) determines the amount of universal contribution.
7) Local energy must be put into the system to initiate a universal reaction.
Fundamentally, Connective Physics confirms mathematically that the universe is connected and that there are no limits.
The degree to which we can actualize access to the unlimited universal connection is based on sudden realizations, quick conscious decisions, creative insights, and abrupt “pivots” in our direction of thinking and/or action. One example might be a readiness to love at a moment’s notice (and then the willingness to “let go” even quicker). In general, it’s having a conscious thought, and then letting it go, knowing it has already manifested (e.g. in “parking prosperity” -- where one visualizes a convenient parking space, immediately lets it go, and then easily finds it upon arriving at their destination).
An easier adherence to Sacred Geometry can also be had through: 1) the elimination or reduction in resistance and a corresponding sense of unlimited capacitance, and 2) going with the natural flow of the geometry of the situation. All of this can be thought of as accentuating the positive (i.e. acknowledging no limits to capacity, love, or joy), and eliminating the negative (no resistance, going with the flow, becoming “feather-weights”, and being unbounded by the flow channels). And with an adherence to Sacred Geometry, Connective Physics and the essence of Creating Reality, all of the universe seems to cooperate in an effortless manner.
[3/10/05] And from there, it only gets more fascinating. Consider, for example, one reader's feedback: The Fifth Element "connects the thought of 'serendipitous happenings' to universal consciousness that is very interesting." Maybe. It also raises questions -- i.e. Is "the term 'Local Energy' a person's expectancy of Good? Change, in my own present experience, appears to be on the increase and the concept of change is definitely something to 'deal with'. I must, and gratefully so, admit that several of the most recent changes have been remarkable via 'upgrading'.
"Another thought regarding Local Energy... Is becoming as mentally 'quiet' as possible regarding apparent immediate change happenings to be a positive for focused Local Energy... i.e., a possible energy attraction for the contributions from the Universe. I am interested in the manifestations that occasionally appear instantaneously and then sometimes the manifestations seem to take lengths of time... and as to the 'why' in the time frames. I think that Local Energy applies to something else or beyond 'physical energy doings.' The physical doings seem to attract frustration, etc., so somelthing else must be involved to attract positive intervention/contributions from the Universe." 
The student, for his or her own edification may want to answer these questions. Or better yet, visit Ming the Mechanic's ruminations on the physics of reality, and the possible nature of singularities and additional dimensions. It's a fascinating world!
Meanwhile, now that we’ve whetted your appetite (or given you indigestion -- whatever!), links to even more amazements can be had. Those categorized as scientific (i.e. those experiments and what not which can be replicated or given some credibility), the direct or indirect demonstrations of the connectedness of the universe, include:
EPR Experiment Alice in Barium-Titanate Land Mach’s Principle
Zero-Point Energy Superconductivity Sonoluninescence
Additional aspects of the Fifth Element include:
Zero-Sum Games Inertial Propulsion Levitation Davis Mechanics
Davis and Stine Stardriver Relativistic Variations on a Theme
Other relevant links include:
Consciousness Arthur Young Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
Superstrings Mass Casimir Effect Cold Fusion Alchemy
Nikola Tesla New Energy Ramifications Time Magic
Mind-Matter David Bohm Holograms
P.S. What about The Sixth Element? ________________________ References  William O. Davis, private notebook, June 9th, 1961.  William O. Davis, G. Harry Stine, E. L. Victory, and S. A. Korff, “Some Aspects of Certain Transient Mechanical Systems”, Presentation to the American Physical Society, April 23, New York University, 1962.  William O. Davis, “The Fourth Law of Motion”, Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact Magazine, May, 1962.  G. Harry Stine, “Detesters, Phasers and Dean Drives”, Analog Science Fiction/ Science Fact Magazine, June, 1976.  Arthur M. Young, The Geometry of Meaning, Robert Briggs Associates, 1976.  Lila Hartman, Private Communication, 3/5/04.
P.S. What about The Sixth Element?
 William O. Davis, private notebook, June 9th, 1961.
 William O. Davis, G. Harry Stine, E. L. Victory, and S. A. Korff, “Some Aspects of Certain Transient Mechanical Systems”, Presentation to the American Physical Society, April 23, New York University, 1962.
 William O. Davis, “The Fourth Law of Motion”, Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact Magazine, May, 1962.
 G. Harry Stine, “Detesters, Phasers and Dean Drives”, Analog Science Fiction/ Science Fact Magazine, June, 1976.
 Arthur M. Young, The Geometry of Meaning, Robert Briggs Associates, 1976.
 Lila Hartman, Private Communication, 3/5/04.
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