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Romulus (and Remus)

New - 20 March 2010

The Mother of All Family Trees

Generations 86 - 91

Romulus (and Remus)

Generation No. 86

1. Romulus [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares)[85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]

2. Remus [ibid] 
According to Wikipedia, Romulus and Remus (traditionally c. 771 BC–c. 717 BC and c. 771 BC–c. 753 BC respectively) are the traditional founders of Rome, the twin sons of the Vestal Virgin Rhea Silvia [aka, Mommy]. In and of itself, the juxtaposition of Vestal Virgin and Mommy is something of a contradiction in terms. But then again, R&R were fathered by the god of war, Mars... who was as per the more enlightened goal of the day: making love and not making war. And obviously, this was yet another example of the "sons of god" registering their progeny in the historical account. Romulus, by the way, served as the first King of Rome.

Romulus and Remus' grandfather, Numitor and his brother Amulius, descendants of certain royal fugitives from Troy, jointly received the throne of Alba Longa upon their father's death. Numitor received the sovereign powers as his birthright, while Amulius received the royal treasury, including the gold Aeneas had brought with him from Troy. While this might have seemed fair, it was anything but.

Because Amulius held the treasury, he accordingly had more power than his brother: a king’s commands being inevitably trumped by said king’s ability to finance whatever he is trying to command. Because of this Amulius quickly dethroned his brother as the rightful king. Once Numitor was out of power, Amulius turned his attention to Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, who, obviously, would be able to produce children who one day might overthrow Amulius in turn. (In royal circles this is something of a family tradition). Amulius accordingly forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess sworn to abstinence and chastity. What Amulius had failed to anticipate, however, was that Mars, the god of war, (in Greek, Ares) had become smitten by Numitor’s daughter... an event reminiscent of “The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair...” [Genesis 6:2]. In this later case, Mars is said to have seduced Rhea in the woods while she was searching for fresh water.

[The emphasis on Mars seducing Rhea -- as opposed to the whole-hearted cooperation and enthusiasm of an upwardly mobile Rhea -- is because the ancient Greeks and Romans tended to strongly defend the honor of their women by insisting their virgins had to be seduced and/or tricked into sex with a god. This is, as opposed, to say, a Jewish woman simply assuming that the voice in her head was a deity... and that said deity had physical needs like any other... male... and so forth and so on... you know the drill.]

King Amulius rather quickly noticed that Rhea was with child (or childs) and he took the next logical step of having her imprisoned in a tower until she gave birth... giving a whole new meaning a woman’s “confinement”. There is, of course, absolutely no truth whatsoever to the story that while waiting for her big moment in the tower, that she ended up letting her hair grow really, really long. Instead, she simply in due course gave birth to twin boys, who happened to be of remarkable size and beauty... thus suggesting a father with war and god credentials, not to mention experience in same (i.e., someone you wouldn’t want to cross). Rhea’s twins were named Romulus and Remus (aka R&R). Amulius was, naturally, enraged, and not to be thwarted by such a blatant lack of chastity, he ordered Rhea and the twins killed. It was one thing to have fooled Father Kingdom (as opposed to Mother Nature), but there was also the problem of R&R being two potential heirs and claimants to Amulius' throne.

Accounts vary on how Amulius carried out his nefarious plan. One version holds that he had Rhea buried alive (the standard punishment for Vestal Virgins who had violated their vow of celibacy -- even for a first violation). He then ordered the death of the twins by exposure. From a Greek point of view (said qualities that Romans tended to emulate), the exposure bit was pretty standard procedure and societally acceptable. Slight flaws in a newborn... like mental or physical infirmities, or having a bit too much royal blood, for examples... were typically resolved by the simple expedience of leaving the infant(s) in the out-of-doors, to be ravaged by the wolves. The assumption, of course, was that the wolves would eventually kill and eat the infants... as opposed to providing high-content milk for the infant(s) nourishment. The idea that a woodpecker would also assist by changing diapers and the like was even less envisioned.

On the one hand, the Greeks were into creating a better race, avoiding children that might require special assistance in growing up, and therefore the Greek tended to allow infants who clearly did not measure up, to die of “natural” causes. At the same time, in the stories of various heroes, the motif of infant exposure is a recurring theme.

According to Wikipedia, some notable examples include:

Sargon, King of Agade (Akkad)- Exposed to the river.
Moses - Exposed in a vessel made of reeds on the river.
Karna - Exposed to the river.
Oedipus - Exposed in the mountains.
Paris - Exposed at the top of Mount Ida.
Telephus - Exposed in the Parthenian mountains.
Perseus - Boxed and cast into the sea with his mother, DanaŽ.
Gilgamesh (Also)- Thrown from the acropolis... the latter a bit like being exposed
Romulus and Remus - Exposed in a tub to the Tiber River.
Siegfried - Exposed in a glass vessel to the river.

Following the exposure, the infants are commonly reared by wild animals or adopted by lowly country folk, such as shepherds, before reaching maturity. Shepherds were, in fact, an ideal choice, in that they tended to spend a lot of time alone in the out-of-doors where they were the natural choice as a surrogate parent, and in general did not aspire to higher office... or even any office. There is also the bit about feral children... e.g. Mowgli. Note the graphic.

In another somewhat more popular version (i.e., it really lends itself to the big screen), Amulius ordered Rhea and the twins thrown into the River Tiber, with the clear intent that they would drown... none of the aforementioned having swimming lessons under their belt. However, the best laid plans by mice and kings oft times go astray. In this case, the servant ordered to kill the twins could not do so, supposedly because they were too beautiful and innocent... a category in which, apparently, Rhea had failed to qualify for... or else she was still up to her neck in... well... dirt. The servant instead proceeded to place the two in a trough (or basket) and laid the baby-laden trough on the banks of the Tiber and thereafter trusted to luck... or the River God. The river, which was in flood stage, rose and gently carried the basket and the twins downstream. While not exactly constituting the standard means for ensuring the drowning of infants -- unless they were really into the habit of rocking the boat -- the servant had in fact met the letter of the law in throwing the kids into the river... but in the tradition of legal loopholes, the kids had been "thrown into" something that floated on the river. The trough proceeded to float down the river -- supposedly kept safe by the river deity Tiberinus (who, like his mother, never liked Amulius) -- until it came to rest at the site of the future Rome, near a Ficus ruminalis, a sacred fig tree in such historical times. There a she-wolf and a woodpecker suckled and fed them.

[The irony is that most everyone familiar with the Romulus and Remus saga knows about the she-wolf -- she keeps showing up in various works of art, sculptures, and the like. However, the woodpecker’s contribution has all too often been ignored... in clear violation of the Agenda of the Association for the Advancement and Appreciation of Avian Americans Anonymous.

[There has also been a serious lack of discussion about the woodpecker’s and the she-wolf’s personal relationship... one that apparently resulted in their being outcasts from from their respective flocks/packs and forced to adopt humans rather than procreating and having flying puppies with an unfortunate tendency to impale themselves on wood.]

It should be noted that the she-wolf (Lupa in Latin) has been known to refer to a priestess of the fox goddess, thus implying that the “she-wolf” might have been a human. There is even speculation that the nurturers were harlots (she-wolf being a name in ancient Rome for said ladies of the night). In any case, the R&R twins were nurtured underneath a fig tree and were fed by a woodpecker named Picus. [It’s not generally speculated as to what manner the woodpecker might have aided the harlot.] Both animals, by the way, were sacred to Mars... who even as an absentee godfather [sic] might nevertheless have felt some responsibilities for the after... birth. In addition, it would appear that Mars had also been playing catch-up with Athena, who had begun the one-up-man-ship years before at Troy by adopting owls as her sacred bird. [Similarly, Odin later went into Valkyries, while Enki was, of course, always big on serpents. Dionysus tended toward young human females in heat.]

[The birth of leaders by a god-impregnated Virgin, who are subsequently set adrift in a floating container on a river, where by near-miraculous means they are saved and raised to manhood... and where one hero kills his brother with a tool normally attributed to agriculture (as opposed to weaponry - Mars - and/or husbandry)... all of this may sound vaguely familiar to a compilation of several stories of the ancient past. In fact, the Romulus and Remus story includes (the executive summary format) the traditional stories of, for example, Jesus Christ, Moses, and Cain and Abel. One does have to give the ancient Romans credit for expediency and efficiency in the construction of their alleged heritage.]

Romulus and Remus were then discovered by Faustulus, a shepherd for Amulius, who brought the children to his home. Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the boys as their own. The roots of her name, by the way, suggest the religious cult of an earth mother, which might imply that it was a prostitute 'she-wolf', and shockingly, an earth mother advocate, who suckled Rome's patriarchal founders. Accordingly, no more will be said about that particular scandal.

In another version Hercules married Acca Larentia off to the shepherd Faustulus, who saved the lives of the twins Romulus and Remus after they had been thrown into the Tiber. As it turned out, Acca Larentia had twelve sons, and on the death of one of them, Romulus took his place. He and the remaining eleven founded the college of the Arval brothers Fratres Arvales. Acca Larentia is therefore identified with the Dea Dia of that collegium. The flamen Quirinalis acted in the role of Romulus (deified as Quirinus) to perform funerary rites for his foster mother (as the goddess). [Be sure to check out “flamen”. Intriguing!]

The Arval brothers subsequently came into direct conflict with Amulius... 1) with regard to grazing rights (aka the fleecing of the non-royal sheep), 2) in the traditional animosity between teenagers and authority figures, and/or 3) simply because Romulus and Remus were eager to reclaim the throne on behalf of their royal lineage. The end result was pretty typical, with Amulius being defeated by rather precisely the sons who he had gone to such great lengths to eliminate as potential rivals. We often reap what we resist.

With Amulius eliminated, the city-kingdom -- having failed utterly to learn from the history of Amulius and Numitor -- offered Romulus and Remus the joint crown. However, the twins -- who were already somewhat politically savvy -- refused to be the kings so long as their grandfather was still alive. This would also give them more time to plan their eventual war of succession over their brother. At the same time, though, they both decided that they would not live in the city-kingdom as subjects of the crown (even when worn by their grandfather). Consequently, after restoring the kingship to Numitor and properly honoring their mother Rhea Silvia [in what was almost certainly various goddess-inspired rites, and with all due deference to their foster mother, Acca Larentia] the two left Alba Longa to found their own city upon the slopes of the Palatine Hill. Before they left Alba Longa, however, they took with them fugitives, runaway slaves, and all others who wanted a second chance at life... including any temporarily lost followers of Moses, who were still looking for the land of milk and honey.

Once Romulus and Remus arrived at the Palatine Hill, the two argued over where the exact position of the city should be. Romulus was set on building the city upon the Palatine, but Remus wanted to build the city on the strategic and easily fortified Aventine Hill. They agreed to settle their argument by testing their abilities as augurs and, more importantly, leaving it up to the will of the deities. Each took a seat on the ground apart from one another. In due course, Remus saw six vultures, the birds being considered sacred to Mars, their father -- i.e., someone has to clean up the god of war’s mess after a good, knock-down-drag-out conflict. Romulus then saw twelve vultures. [Mars had considered sending seven lean and seven well-fed cows, but Apollo and Hermes were still arguing over the herd that Hermes had allegedly stolen from Apollo. Also, as it turns out, hippos were out of season.]

Remus was enraged by Romulus’s apparent victory [there’s a lot of poor losers in history]. He claimed that since he had seen his six vultures first, he should have won. Romulus’ lawyers rejected this claim out of hand and vowed to go to court... just as soon as Romulus created a legal justice/injustice system. In the interim, on April 21, 753 BC [*], Romulus began digging a trench (or building a wall, according to Dionysius), and thereby establishing where his city's boundary were to run. Remus ridiculed some parts of this work, and obstructed others. Then Remus leapt across the trench, an omen of bad luck, since this implied that the city fortifications would be easily breached. In response, Remus was killed. [Anyone stepping across the proverbial line in the sand, very likely deserves nothing less than a shovel upside the head.]

[*] One can pretty well bet that astrologically, such a date would have great significance. Of course, a great deal depends on whether or not it was a Tuesday... i.e., Mars’ Day.

There are, as it turns out, four different accounts of ways Remus died... thereby demonstrating the ancient tradition of witnesses being unable to agree to critical factors... if only because witnesses tend to be rank amateurs, instead of professional or expert witnesses. A majority, however, agree that Remus’ brother Romulus killed him: "Remus, in derision of his brother, leaped over the new wall, and Romulus, enraged thereat, slew him, uttering at the same time this imprecation: 'So perish every one that shall hereafter leap over my wall'". An alternative version simply states, in a passive voice, that Remus was dead, without noting either that he was murdered, or by whom; he simply "became dead". Two other lesser known minority opinions state that either Remus was killed by Romulus' commander Fabius with a shovel, or that Celer, whose relation to Romulus is uncertain, killed Remus by striking him across the head with his spade.

Once the Spade Wars subsided, Romulus buried Remus before continuing to build his city. He named the city Roma after himself, and served as its first king. After the completion of the city, Romulus divided the people of Rome who were able to fight into regiments of 3000 infantry and 300 cavalry. Romulus called these regiments "legions". From the populace, Romulus hand selected 100 of the most noble men to serve as a council for the city... i.e., those who weren’t able or inclined to fight, but who could order others to do so. Romulus called these noble men Patricians, not only because they were the fathers of legitimate sons (thus making them comparatively... legitimately... elite), but also because he intended the great and the wealthy to treat the weak and the poor as fathers treat their sons. The specifics of how this logic might actually work was not clear, but the plan delineated, if only symbolically, the inauguration of the patron-client relationship, known as clientela. I.e., it’s essential for someone seeking justice or any rights whatsoever to have a patron -- preferably one who is not patronizing -- in order to prosper in society. This clientela relationship was central to Roman culture and society, and was later passed down to medieval, sometimes feudal societies, where objections to such arrangements was more often than not... futile. The council of the Patricians was called the Roman Senate.

The clientela relationship was also passed down to modern-day lawyer-client relationships, whereby the lowly client must seek (beg, cajole, pray for, and pay through the nose for) some semblance of just protection from the high, muckedy-muck Esquire, the exalted member of the bar, in order to even qualify for protection or to be considered by any court in dictating its decisions in the modern legal system. Anyone without representation by legal (elite) hacks will not be considered to be anything other than a "fool"... the latter defined by the legal profession as anyone who attempts to represent themselves in court.

The clientela concept is also the basis for representative governments... the latter which for the sake of tradition, always insists on the populace having to pay though the nose for the politicians to govern in such a way as to benefit those with the ability to pay... thought the nose.

Finally... it probably goes without saying that the Romulus name is rather likely the inspiration for the Romulan race of Star Trek fame. The fact that there were no Remusians in that popular TV series is probably due to the fact that their race and/or species had supposedly been wiped out many eons ago... by a shovel upside the head... probably about the time of the discovery by the Romulans of the wheel (and thus the necessity of having to invent a shovel in order to get the wheel out of snowdrifts and mud). There is also potential credibility in the story that the first Romulan had been born to a royal, virginal Vulcan, the child being saved in an escape pod from an intergalactic space ship during a regicide festival aboard the cruise ship. The child was later discovered and adopted by Klingons, who had hoped thereby to cause conflict among human beings by attempting to free the Neanderthal slaves from their Cro-magnon overlords. Later this legendary hero was worshiped as the deity “Q”, short for Quirinus, who like Janus was considered to be something of a two-faced god. [Isn't it wonderful what a classical education can do for one?]

[Remus’ fame did manage to yield his being referenced in the Uncle Remus’ tales. Sigh.]

Romulus spread the reputation of Rome as an asylum to all who desired a new life. [Sadly, there was no France at the time capable of sending a statuesque beacon for the local harbor. There was also the substantial competition posed by the Pharos of Alexandria, Egypt.] Nevertheless, Rome was able to attract a population of exiles, refugees, murderers, criminals, runaway slaves, and of course... Republicans. [Ah yes: the American dream!] Rome's population increased exponentially -- i.e., there were at the time (as well as now) a hoarde of murderers, criminals and Republicans running about doing their thing and looking for new avenues to fleece. Thus, the city was able to settle five of the seven hills of Rome: the Capitoline Hill, the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Palatine Hill. Romulus, however, saw a problem quickly forming before him (besides the presence of all those friggin’ Republicans): few of the foreigners had wives. (People on the run often miss out on the benefits of family life.) Romulus decided he needed to fill his city with women as well.

To do so, Romulus held a festival, the Consualia, and invited the neighboring Sabine tribe to attend as his guests. The Sabines came en masse, and (foolishly) brought with them their daughters... “that were fair.” Romulus’ plan was to kidnap the Sabine women and bring them back to Rome as citizens... and/or suffragettes. When the Sabines arrived, Romulus sat amongst the senators, clad in purple, and ready to signal the daughter-nappings by his rising and folding his cloak, and then throwing it round him again. Armed with swords, many of his followers kept their eyes intently upon him, and when the signal was given, his nobles drew their swords, rushed in with shouts, and captured the daughters of the Sabines. As part of the grand plan, they permitted and encouraged the men to escape unharmed. In all, some 700 Sabine women were captured and brought back to Rome. This event is remembered in various works of art titled "Rape of the Sabine Women".

[Again, the gentlemanly Romans protected the virtue of their new wives by insisting that the new brides would never have deigned to sleep, marry, inherit, and defend with their last breath their new Roman families, had they not been forced to do so by devious, strong, and manly rapists... men in their prime... and with Homeland-Security-approved swords.]

The Sabines, although a numerous and war-like people, found themselves somewhat between the rock and the hard place (i.e., a steel sword). Bound by precious hostages and fearing for their daughters, they sent ambassadors with reasonable and moderate demands that Romulus should give back their maidens, disavow his deed of violence, and then, by persuasion and legal enactment, establish a friendly relationship between the two peoples. Romulus would not surrender the maidens [possibly in large part due to the fact that many if not all of said maidens were no longer... strictly speaking... maidens]. Instead, he demanded that the Sabines allow their marriage with the Romans. Whereupon both parties held long deliberations and made extensive preparations for war. [Fortunately, they were totally unaware of the prescription that it is impossible to prepare simultaneously for peace and war.]

While most of the Sabines were still busy with their preparations, the people of a few cities banded together against the Romans, and in a battle which ensued, they were defeated, and surrendered to Romulus their cities, their territory to be divided, and themselves to be transported to Rome. According to Wikipedia, “Romulus distributed among the citizens all the territory thus acquired, excepting that which belonged to the parents of the ravished maidens; this he suffered its owners to keep for themselves.”

[One might suspect a “ravished maiden” is an oxymoron.]

This enraged the Sabines [the ravishing, as opposed to the oxymoron], and in response appointed Titus Tatius as the supreme commander-in-chief of all the Sabines, who then marched his army on Rome. The city was difficult to access, having as its fortress the Capitoline Hill, on which a guard had been stationed, with a man named Tarpeius as its captain. But supposedly, Tarpeia, a daughter of the commander, betrayed the citadel to the Sabines, having set her heart on the golden armlets that she saw them wearing, and she asked as payment for her treachery that which they wore on their left arms. Tatius agreed to this, whereupon she opened one of the gates by night and let the Sabines in. Once inside, Tatius ordered his Sabines, mindful of their agreement, to not begrudge her anything they wore on their left arms. Tatius was first to take from his arm not only his armlet, but at the same time his shield, and cast them upon her. All his men followed his example, and she was smitten by the gold and buried under the shields, and died from the number and weight of them.

[There is no truth to the charge that she had been a gold-digger; in that had she been, she might have been able to dig herself out.]

With the Sabines controlling the Capitoline Hill, Romulus angrily challenged them to open battle, and Tatius boldly accepted. The Sabines marched down the Capitoline and battled the Romans between the hills in a swampy area which would one day become the Roman Forum. (The war itself could be viewed as the pre-quel of later Roman games.) The Sabines overran the Romans and the Romans were forced back behind the very walls of Rome upon the Palatine Hill. From behind the walls, the Romans began to flee the battle. Romulus bowed down and prayed to Jupiter (hoping Enki had a sense of humor... if not irony). The Romans promptly rallied back to Romulus and made a stand. Later, on the very spot where Romulus prayed, a temple to Jupiter Stator ("the stayer") was built. Romulus led the Romans on and they drove the Sabines back to the point where the Temple of Vesta would one day stand.

Then, just as the Romans and Sabines were preparing to renew the battle, they were abruptly stopped by the sight of the ravished daughters of the Sabines rushing from the city of Rome through the infantry and the dead bodies. The Sabine women ran up to their husbands and their fathers, some carrying young children in their arms... and thereby explaining the use of the “ravished” adjective. Both armies were so moved to compassion (i.e., from the male perspective, the prospect of some very unhappy women). The armies drew apart to give the women some space between the battle lines. The Sabine women begged their Roman husbands and their Sabine fathers and brothers to accept one another and live as one nation. With sorrow running through the ranks, a truce was made and the leaders held a conference. It was decided that both Romulus and Tatius would rule as joint kings of the Romans, including the newly added Sabines.

This resulted in Rome doubling its size. With the Romans inhabiting the Palatine Hill and the Sabines inhabiting the Quirinal Hill, the two nations chose a third hill to serve as the center of government and administration for the city of Rome, the Capitoline Hill. From the new Sabine citizens, 100 new noble men were selected to become Patricians and join the ranks of the Senate. The legions were doubled in size, from 3000 infantry and 300 cavalry to 6000 infantry and 600 cavalry. The cultures of the Romans and Sabine were also combined in the union. The Sabines adopted the Roman calendar, and the Romans adopted the armor and oblong shield of the Sabines.

After five years of joint rule, Tatius was assassinated by foreign ambassadors and Romulus became the sole king of the Romans. Despite the obvious benefit to Romulus of foreign powers intervening to kill off the only limit to his power, Romulus appeared to have avoided any stigma or suspicion of an inside job in Tatius' murder. Then, in a bit of irony, Romulus introduced legislation... after the fact... against adultery and murder... and/or adultery which led to murder. As the now solitary king of Rome, Romulus became not only the commander-in-chief of the army, but also the city’s chief judicial authority. Reportedly, his judgments of many crimes were held in place for over six hundred years, and without a single case being reported in Rome of his judgments being questioned. This is called dictatorial, media control!

Under Romulus' sole administration, the people of Rome were divided into three tribes: one for Latins (Ramnes), a second for Sabines (Titites), and a third for Etruscans (Luceres). The Ramnes derived their name from Romulus, the Tities derived their name from Titus Tatius, and the Luceres derived their name from an Etruscan title of honor. Together these three tribes constituted the Romans. Each of the tribes had a tribune who represented their respective tribes in all civil, religious, and military affairs. When in the city, they were the magistrates of their tribes, and performed sacrifices on their behalf, and in times of war they were Rome's military commanders.

We might also mention that after creating the three tribes, the Comitia Curiata were instituted. To form its basis Romulus divided each of the three tribes into ten curiae. Each of the individual curia then were subdivided into ten gentes, which formed the basis for the nomen in the Roman naming convention. When Romulus would convene the Comitia Curiate and lay proposals from either him or the senate before the Curiate for ratification, the ten gentes within each curia would cast a vote, with the collective vote of the curia going to the majority of the gentes. This formed the basis for the modern Electoral College.

[The degree to which ancient Roman symbolism and thinking has permeated the symbols and the organizational structure of the United States of America is truly astounding. (Check out the almighty dollar, for example.) Inasmuch as both nations were/are ruled by the powerful and elite families... even while claiming to be Republics... is probably not a coincidence.]

Romulus, being a martial man, formed his own personal guard, called the Celeres. (Suffice it to say that Romulus knew how assassinations might be instituted.) The Celeres consisted of Rome's three hundred finest horsemen who were under the command of the Celerum Tribune, who was also the Tribune for the Ramnes tribe. The Celeres derived their name from their leader, a close friend of Romulus named Celers who [in one version] helped him slay Remus and found the city of Rome. This special military unit functioned very much like the Praetorian Guard of Augustus as it was responsible for Romulus' personal safety and for the security of Rome while the legions were on her borders. The relationship between Romulus and his Tribune also is similar to the relation between the Roman Dictator and his Magister Equitum. Celer, as the Celerum Tribune, occupied the second place in the state, and in Romulus' absence he had the rights of convoking the Comitia and commanding the armies. [Rather like a US Vice President deciding to go to war when his boss is away.]

From the founding of Rome until his death, Romulus waged wars and expanded his territory... i.e., Rome's territory... for over two decades. He conquered many of the neighboring Etruscan cities, and gained unequaled control over the area of Latium, Tuscany, Umbria, and Abruzzo. After his final wars against the Etruscans, the king of Alba Longa, Numitor, Romulus’ biological grandfather, died. The people of Alba Longa freely offered the crown to Romulus, believing he was the one rightful ruler of the city as the blood heir to Numitor. Romulus accepted dominion over the city, but gained much favor with the city’s populace by placing the government in the hands of the people within the city. Once a year, Romulus appointed a governor over the city, a man selected by the people of Alba Longa.

During later years, Romulus grew to rely less and less upon the Senate. Though this was entirely legal, it went against tradition. The Senate essentially had lost its influence, holding no say in the administration of the city. The Senate could only be convened when Romulus called for it, and once assembled, the Senators merely sat in silence and listened to his edicts. The Senators soon found that their only advantage over the commoners was that they learned what Romulus decreed sooner than the commoners did. On his own authority, he divided the territory acquired in war among his soldiers, and without the consent or wish of the Patricians... who began to suspect that he was insulting their Senate outright. Although the Senators grew to hate him, they feared him (and the Celeres) too much to defy him openly and show him their displeasure.

One story goes that Romulus's life ended in the thirty-eighth year of his reign, with a supernatural disappearance... in other words, he was not slain by the Senate. In this version, when Romulus and all the people had gone to the Campus Martius on the fateful day, a sudden storm arose. The darkness became so great that the people fled in terror. When the storm was over, the Romans returned. To their surprise, however, Romulus had disappeared. The people searched for him, but none could find him. The people were amazed, and were all talking about his sudden disappearance, and wondering what could have become of their king, when one of the Senators stood up and called for silence.

After the Senator calmed the mass of people, he told the assembled Romans that he had seen Romulus being carried up into the heavens. Romulus, the Senator said, had called out that he was going to live with the deities, and wished his people to worship him as the god Quirinus. In response, the Romans built a temple on the hill where the Senator said that Romulus had risen to heaven. This hill was called the Quirinal Hill in Romulus' honor, and for many years the Romans worshiped Romulus, the founder of their city, and their first king from that very spot.

[One must admit that under the circumstances the Senator was being enormously clever. He was able to establish the power of the Senate with smoke and mirrors... and with the simple ruse of allowing for the deitification of the deposed leader... someone the Senator may well have had a hand in deposing Romulus. If only such a technique could have worked in modern times! But then again... much of what does happen these days is still pretty much smoke and mirrors.]

As the god Quirinus, Romulus joined Jupiter and Mars in the Archaic Triad. Quirinus was Rome’s god of war, their strength, and the deified likeness of the city of Rome itself.


3. Hersilia [86] ...unknown

Hersilia - Hersilia was the wife of Romulus. The principal source for her is Livy:

"While the Romans were winning and exploiting victories elsewhere, the army of the Antemnates, taking advantage of their absence, made a hostile incursion into the Roman territories. A Roman legion marched out in haste and surprised the Antemnates, while they were still straggling through the fields. Accordingly, the enemy were routed at the very first shout and charge: their town taken. Romulus returned, exulting for this double victory, when his consort, Hersilia, importuned by the entreaties of the captured women, beseeched him "to pardon their fathers, and to admit them to the privilege of citizens; that thus his power might be strengthened by a reconciliation." Her request was readily granted."

Just like her husband (who became the god Quirinus), she was deified after her death as Hora.

Kings of Rome


See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kings_of_Rome


Generation No. 87

1. Numa Pompilius [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares)[85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]

Or by another reckoning, in a far less detailed manner (and which we will discount somewhat):

1. Numa Pompilius [87] Pomponius [86] ...Sabines ...Lacedaemonians (Sparta) ...Enki (=Taygete) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]

Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus (son of god) by the nymph Taygete. He married Sparta the daughter of Eurotas, by whom he became the father of Amyclas, Eurydice, and Asine.

Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC; king of Rome, 717-673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

Tatia (d. of Titus Tatius, King of the Sabines)

Pompilia (daughter)
Pompo (Pomponius) -- patriarch of Pomponii noble family
Pinus -- patriarch of Pinarii noble family
Calpus -- patriarch of Calpuenii noble family
Mamercus -- patriarch of Aemilii noble family
Numa -- patriarch of Pompilii noble family

With respect to the children, one accounts suggests that:

“Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines and a colleague of Romulus, married his only daughter, Tatia, to Numa. After 13 years of marriage, Tatia died. Numa may have then married twice more. Pompilia, whose mother is variously identified as Numa's first wife Tatia or his second wife Lucretia, supposedly married a certain Marcius and by him gave birth to the future king, Ancus Marcius.”

However, a question that arises is whether or not Pompilia was Numa’s daughter. In one Wikipedia web page, for example, “Plutarch claims that Numa was the youngest of Pomponius' four sons, born on the day of Rome's founding (traditionally, 21 April 753 BC),” and that furthermore, “Plutarch reports that some authors credited him with only a single daughter, Pompilia...”

However, another Wikipedia web page reports that Livy described Ancus Marcius, the fourth King of Rome [See below, Generation No. 89], as “the son of Marcius and Pompilia and, through his mother, grandson of Rome's Romulus.” [emphasis added]

These two web pages are not necessarily a contradiction (albeit pretty darn close!), in that Ancus Marcius’ mother Pompilia would have of necessity also required a mother (in addition to Numa as a father)... who could easily have been Romulus’ daughter... albeit, this would make Ancus the great grandson of Romulus... and who’s to argue about yet another Roman claiming to be “great”? In any case, we will assume Livy’s case to be more accurate, if not needing a slight modification. Accordingly, we will assume herein that Ancus is in Romulus’ bloodline, even with the possibility of Pompilia being the daughter of Romulus... and Hersilia.

Now that we have that settled, we can return to the fact that in 717 BC, after the death of Romulus, Numa was elected by the Roman Senate to be the next king. This might well have been due to a blood connection with Romulus, or as Plutarch might assume, a throwback to the Sabines in that Plutarch assumed that "Numa was descended of the Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians."

Numa was later celebrated for his natural wisdom and piety; legend says the nymph Egeria taught him to be a wise legislator. According to Livy, Numa pretended that he held nightly consultations with the goddess Egeria on the proper manner of instituting sacred rites for the city. Numa also brought the Vestal Virgins to Rome from Alba Longa. There is also the possibility that such pious behavior was somewhat pompous... the clue being that Numa’s father's middle name was Pomponius.

Egeria, by the way, provided wisdom and prophecy in return for simple libations of water or milk at her sacred grove, her name deriving from "of the black poplar". Egeria was associated by Romans with Diana, and women in childbirth typically called for her aid (in between cursing the males who got them pregnant)... possibly a connection with the Greek goddess Ilithyia, whose functions Artemis/Diana assumed... and whose name sounds a bit like Lilith, "handmaiden to the goddess Inanna (Aphrodite).

Egeria was also one of the Camenae, minor deities who came to be equated with the Greek Muses as Rome fell under the cultural hegemony of Greece. [If you can't grow your own culture, then import it wholesale from older, more established cultures. It's the pragmatic, Roman Way.] Egeria may, in fact, predate the Roman: she could have been of Italic origin in the sacred forest of Aricia in Latium. Because she was a nymph consort to the Sabine Numa Pompilius, she became associated with Rome. From Egeria Numa received the principles of the Roman religious constitution. Allegedly, when Numa died, Egeria changed into a well. [Well...!]

Plutarch claims the early religion of the Romans was imageless and spiritual. He says Numa:

“...forbade the Romans to represent the deity in the form either of man or of beast. Nor was there among them formerly any image or statue of the Divine Being; during the first one hundred and seventy years they built temples, indeed, and other sacred domes, but placed in them no figure of any kind; persuaded that it is impious to represent things Divine by what is perishable, and that we can have no conception of God but by the understanding".

One might ask where Numa got that idea? If it was Egeria, we’re talking about basically a pagan goddess of springs, sacred groves, and other notoriously natural ingredients. There is also, obviously, the hint of other religions that are unalterably opposed to graven images.

Numa Pompilius died in 673 BC of old age. He was succeeded by Tullus Hostilius.


2. Hostus Hostillius [86] ... unknown

Hostus Hostilius was a nobleman of Ancient Rome during the reign of king Romulus. He fought and died during the Sabine invasion of Rome following the Rape of the Sabine Women. [At least, his last memories were good ones.] His grandson, Tullus Hostilius, was the third king of Rome. His lineage is otherwise unknown. On the other hand, his name might be construed to give some hint of his nature, nativity, and natural abilities. He is mentioned here, in large part, as a space saver for a brief respite from the Numa lineage... and because his name is so cool!


Generation No. 88

1. Pompilia [88] Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia) [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares)[85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]

Pompilia, whose mother is variously identified as Numa's first wife Tatia, his second wife, Lucretia, Romulus' wife Hersilia, or an unknown woman, married a certain Marcius (of whom we know even less) and by him gave birth to the future king, Ancus Marcius. Him we know... a little bit.


2. Tullus Hostillius [88] ... Hostus Hostillius [86] ...unknown

Tullus Hostilius (r. 673 BC – 641 BC) was the third of the Kings of Rome. He succeeded Numa Pompilius, and was in turn succeeded by Ancus Marcius. Unlike his predecessor, Tullus was known as a warlike king. He was the grandson of Hostus Hostilius who had fought and died with Romulus during the Sabine invasion of Rome. As for being a warlike, hostile, king... is it any wonder? As has been said many times before, blood will tell.

The principal feature of Tullus' reign was his defeat of Alba Longa. After besting Alba Longa in war (by the victory of three Roman champions over three Albans) Alba Longa became Rome's vassal state. However, after the Alban dictator subsequently betrayed Rome, Tullus ordered Alba Longa to be destroyed, and forced the migration of the Alban citizenry to Rome where they were integrated and became Roman citizens. Tullus also fought successful wars against Fidenae and Veii and against the Sabines.

In possible response to Numa’s piety and preoccupation with religion, Tullus paid little heed to religious observances during his reign, thinking them unworthy of a king's attention... or the natural separation of church and state. However, at the close of his reign, Rome was affected by a series of bad omens, including: 1) a shower of stones on Alban Mount (in response to which a public religious festival of nine days was held - a novendialis), 2) a loud voice was heard on the summit of the mount complaining about the Albans failed devotion to their former gods, and 3) a pestilence happening in Rome. King Tullus became ill, and promptly got religion... and/or superstition. He fell back on the commentaries of Numa Pompilius and attempted to carry out sacrifices recommended by Numa to Jupiter Elicius (the weather and storm aspect of Jupiter). However Tullus did not undertake the ceremony correctly, and both he and his house were struck by lightning and reduced to ashes as a result of the anger of Jupiter. [What’s in a ritual and its exact conformity? Apparently, a bit more than one might have thought.]


3. Demaratus the Corinthian [88] ...unknown

Demaratus the Corinthian was a Corinthian nobleman of the House of Bacchis who arrived in Italy from Greece as a refugee in 655 B.C. Demaratus settled in the Etruscan city of Tarquinii.

an Etruscan noblewoman from Tarquinii

Lucumo (aka Lucius Tarquinius Priscus)

Aruns died before his father, Demaratus, and left a pregnant wife. Demaratus not knowing he had a future grandchild left nothing for him in his inheritance. The grandchild subsequently became known as Egerius ("The Needy One"), on account of the poverty instilled by his non-inheritance. Egerius was the father to Tarquinius Collatinus, the husband to Lucretia. Egerius is also the first cousin of Tarquinia.

Tarquinia's son, meanwhile was Lucius Junius Brutus the founder of the Roman Republic.

When Demaratus migrated to Western mainland Italy, he brought all of his wealth and with it, introduced Greek culture and Greek pottery. This may have included bringing potters with him from Corinth. These potters were thus responsible for the development of Greek pottery in Western mainland Italy... primarily in Tarquinii and in the Greek trading post of Gravisca.

An alternative version of his Family Tree is shown by The Ancient Library.


Generation No. 89

1. Ancus Marcius [89] Pompilia (=Marcius) [88] Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia) [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares)[85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]

Ancus Marcius (c. 640 BC – 616 BC) was the fourth of the Kings of Rome. Accordingly to Livy, he was the son of Marcius and Pompilia and, through his mother, he was the great grandson of Rome's Romulus.

His first act as king was to order the pontifex maximus to copy the text concerning the performance of public ceremonies of religion from the commentaries of Numa Pompilius to be displayed to the public, so that the rites of religion should no longer be neglected or improperly performed. [Obviously, Ancus had learned something from Tullus’ example: it’s not nice to fool around with the gods and goddesses and their rites. Or is it just the priests? Probably the latter.]

He incorporated into the city an area known as the Janiculum, in essence an ancient town founded by the god Janus (the two-faced god of beginnings), fortifying it with a wall and connecting it with the city by a wooden bridge across the Tiber, the Pons Sublicius. On the land side of the city he constructed the Fossa Quiritium, a ditch fortification. He also built Rome's first prison, the Mamertine prison... which later achieved its own form of recognition by providing for the incarceration of Saints Peter and Paul... the latter which is actually celebrated, so to speak, with an altar. Sigh.

Ancus waged war successfully against the Latins, and a number of them were settled on the Aventine Hill. He extended Roman territory to the sea, founding the port of Ostia, establishing salt-works around the port, and taking the Silva Maesia, an area of coastal forest north of the Tiber, from the Veientes. He expanded the temple of Jupiter Feretrius (a place to witness solemn oaths... such as: “By Jove! I think she’s got it.”). (Actually, he founded it primarily in order to publicize his territorial successes.)

He was succeeded by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus... i.e., not in the bloodline succession.


2. Lucius Tarquintus Priscus [89] Demaratus the Corinthian (= Tarquinii) [88] ...unknown

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I, was the fifth King of Rome reigning from 616 BC to 579 BC. He came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii.


Aruns Tarquinius
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Tarquinia (married Servius Tullius, the 6th King of Rome)

Lucius, disgruntled with his opportunities in Etruria, migrated to Rome with his wife... at her suggestion. He had been prohibited from obtaining political office in Tarquinii because of the ethnicity of his father, Demaratus the Corinthian. Legend has it that on his arrival in Rome in a chariot, an eagle took his cap, flew away and then returned it back upon his head. Tanaquil, who was skilled in prophecy (as well as shameless self-promotion and public relations), interpreted this as an omen of his future greatness.

In Rome he attained respect through his courtesy. [Obviously, not something likely to occur in today’s political arenas.] King Ancus Marcius himself noticed Tarquinius and, by his last will and testament, appointed Tarquinius guardian of his own sons. [... and thus a demonstration of the reason for courtesy not being passed down from generation to generation. This is because...] upon the death of Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus addressed the Comitia Curiata and convinced them that he should be elected king over Marcius' natural sons, who were in still in their teenage years and unfit to rule... just yet. [And the best part is that he got away with it! He was, after all... polite.]

Tarquinius also increased the number of the Senate by the addition of 100 men from the minor leading families... i.e., stocking the electorate with nobles and semi-nobles beholden to him. This was a pretty sharp move, if for no other reason than among them was the family of the Octavii, the family of the future first emperor Augustus. [Just one more line of credible descent.] There is also the possibility that his election as king came at a price... the back room promotion of his supporters into the Senate.

Tarquinius' first war was waged against the Latins. He took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm and took booty from there back to Rome. He then defeated the Sabines, but only after dangerous street fighting in Rome. After this he further subjugated the Etruscans, thereby incorporating into the Roman sphere of influence the cities of Corniculum, Firulea, Cameria, Crustumerium, Americola, Medullia and Nomentum. After each of his wars, which were always extremely successful, he brought rich plunder to Rome. He doubled the size of the Centuriate Assembly to 1800 people. He clearly understood Republican politics... in much the same way that John Paul II, as pontiff, did, adding ultra conservative cardinals by the dozens.

Tarquinius established the Circus Maximus. [The guy’s a political genius! Karl, eat your heart out.] Raised seating was erected privately by the senators and elites (i.e., at their cost), and other areas were marked out for private citizens. Horses and boxers from Etruria were sent for as the first to participate in the thenceforth annual games. From this bold act, came the tradition of scoreboards with “Home” and “Visitors”. He was also the first to celebrate a Roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, wearing a robe of purple and gold, and borne on a chariot drawn by four horses. Sadly (or more likely, blessedly) the name of his campaign manager(s) has been lost to history.

Meanwhile, back at the Roman Ranch, the now adult sons of his predecessor Ancus Marcius had begun to have revolutionary thoughts that for their own bloody reasons, the throne should somehow fall to them. Accordingly, they arranged for Tarquinius Priscus to be assassinated with an axe blow to the head... and thus effectively do an end run around the Senate, votes, and influential plebeians. However, thanks to the intelligent foresight of the queen Tanaquil, the sons of Ancus were not chosen as the next king(s), but rather Tarquinius' son-in-law. Servius Tullius, husband of her daughter Tarquinia, was elected as his successor. Once again, the royal line of descent gets interrupted. Bummer!


Generation No. 90

1. [Place Holder] Two teenage sons [90] Ancus Marcius [89] Pompilia (=Marcius) [88] Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia) [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares)[85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]


2. Servius Tullius [90] ...unknown

Servius Tullius was the sixth king of ancient Rome and the second king of the Etruscan dynasty.

The Etruscan civilization of ancient Italy was in an area corresponding roughly to the modern area of Tuscany, whom the ancient Romans called Etrusci or Tusci. Their Roman name is the origin of the names of Tuscany, their heartland, and Etruria, their wider region. From them as well comes the name of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Etruscans themselves used the term Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna. [Winners get to rename most anything.]

The civilization endured from an unknown prehistoric time prior to the founding of Rome until its complete assimilation to Italic Rome in the time of the Roman Republic. At its maximum extent, it flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania. Rome was sited in Etruscan territory, and apparently Rome was dominated by Etruscans until the Romans sacked Veii in 396 BC.

Culture that is identifiably and certainly Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BCE approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the seventh century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbors in Magna Graecia, the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy. After 500 BCE the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands. [The Villanovan culture and its predecessor go back as far as 1300 BCE, making it contemporary with Troy.]

Servius Tullius (578-535 BC) was the first king to come to power without the consultation of the plebeians, having gained the throne by the contrivance of Tanaquil, his mother-in-law. In this account, Tullius was anointed as a young child to become king, after a ring of fire was seen around his head. He was then raised as a prince.

Married: an unnamed daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

Children: Tullia (who married Aruns Tarquinius)

While Servius’ heritage might have been suspect, or just a bit less than royal, his mother was in theory a princess from Corniculum. His mother had been captured by the Romans, but to pay homage to her regal origins, she was allowed to live in the palace. Another version, quoted in a speech to the Senate by Claudius [See below, Generation No. 98] represented him as a soldier of fortune originally named Macstarna (aka Macstarve, Macdonald). He was allegedly from Etruria [greater Etruscan] who attached himself to Caelius Vibenna. After various adventures Caelius was beaten in battle, but Macstarna came to Rome with the remnants of his army. Macstarna named the Caelian Hill after his deceased friend.

There is also no truth to the suggestion that the name Servius derives from an adjective of servus, "slave." Instead, the adjective is servilis, and there is some evidence to support the Macstarna-turned-Servius story. The latter, in fact, derives from the Oratio Claudii Caesaris and represents an Etruscan explanation being related by the emperor Claudius (a savant in matters Etruscan). Still... if Macstarna was Servius, the questions remain as to why he changed his name, and why he chose that name. The suggestion that Macstarna was his secret identity (like Bruce Wayne) is probably wrong.

After military campaigns against Veii and the Etruscans, Sevius improved the administrative and political organization of Rome. He instituted the new fashion of legally binding procedures on changing one’s name. (Obviously, something with which he was well informed.) He undertook building projects and expanded the city to include the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills. Favoring the goddess, Fortuna (perhaps he was thinking of the fate of Vibenna), he built several temples to her as well as to Diana. He also built a palace for himself on the Esquiline. [Inasmuch as hell hath no fury like a woman scorned, a king would do well to honor such goddesses as Fortuna and Diana. For example:

Fortuna (Greek Tyche) was the goddess of fortune, personification of luck, and justice in the veiled and blind format... the latter essentially representing the capriciousness of life, and more appropriately, the capriciousness of the law (as opposed to blind justice... but still justice). She was also considered a goddess of fate... by which many a loser of the law claimed descent. Her father was Jupiter, and though she had no lovers or children of her own, Fortuna was a favorite of mothers. In her Greek persona, her genealogies included being a daughter of Hermes and Aphrodite, one of the Oceanids, daughters of Oceanus and Tethys, or as in the Roman version, Zeus Pindar. As a daughter of Jupiter and/or Zeus, she would also, by extension, be a daughter of Enki, albeit through an unknown mother. However, she was uniquely venerated in Crete, which is very goddess oriented, and thus may be an aspect of Inanna. In any case, she is well worth gaining as a friend/patron/protector.

Diana (Greek Artemis) was initially the goddess of the hunt, associated primarily with wild animals and woodlands. She later became a moon goddess, supplanting Luna. She also ruled over the countryside, and became the goddess of childbirth. (The latter makes sense in that she was, according to Greek mythology, the mid-wife for her twin brother, Apollo.) She was worshipped at a festival on August 13, when King Servius Tullius, dedicated her shrine on the Aventine Hill in the mid-sixth century BCE. Being placed on the Aventine, and thus outside the pomerium, meant that Diana's cult essentially remained a 'foreign' one, like that of Bacchus.

Servius Tullius is credited with reforming the army and transforming the collective unwritten organizational structures and functions of the Roman state. His reforms included opening the ranks of the powerful to the nouveau riche and giving every free male a say in self-government, no matter in how soft a voice. It's always appropriate to allow rich people greater powers. It rather goes with the territory... particularly when the sale of status and aristocratic station can become a real cash cow.

The lineage from Demaratus the Corinthian down through Lucius Tarquinius Superbus included three of the seven kings of ancient Rome... and yet this lineage had a decidedly less-than-royal attitude. Inasmuch as many of the prime players were apparently not of the same royal heritage (except as redefined by later historians) there was a strange and inexplicable tendency toward... shudder... democratic ideals! And, horrifying as it seems, in a proto-republican state. Such a combination, obviously carries with it the strong likelihood of a seriously split personality trying vainly to focus. For obvious reasons (as per example, the French Revolution) the idea of commoners gaining power can be one definition of anathema.

Obviously, Servius did not invent the concept of class... or for that matter, that other democratic innovation, the inter net. In fact the prior reforms of Solon at Athens had been along similar class lines. Athens had created new tribes and divided the citizens by wealth so as to break the monopoly of the ancient families... whose exclusive powers were strangling the business and power of the state. [It’s a common problem, what with the same forces operating in modern times -- the upwardly mobile vying for a place in the well-entrenched establishment of wealth and power.]

After completing his history-making first census, Servius used the information from it to divide the new, expanded populace by wealth, age and occupation. Ironically, even at the inception of the census concept, the patricii, including Servius, quickly discovered the principle of the gerrymander. This is the means by which, if voting was to be by district and there was one vote per district, then anyone could effectively invalidate large numbers of people by simply redistricting so as to put them all in one district.

There is some question about whether the top of Roman society was included in the classes at all. The division of classes into the amount of land someone controlled or based on their wealth, obviously does not make much sense when there were fabulously wealthy individuals... individuals who would never deign to associate with, or be lumped together with the newly rich (but relatively poor) people. And yet, in Rome, the junior officers of the army, who were well-to-do youngsters, commanded soldiers of all classes. Romans preferred the same laws to apply to everyone, indicating that the classici (classes) must have included most of the gentes, but the question remains open. [Of course, sons from the elite of Roman society being officers in the military made a lot of sense in that a degree of control over the all powerful military would be considered to be essential to the preservation of the ancient Powers That Be. In fact, class did become an issue in the military and the line of battle in the phalanx formation.

All this class gerrymandering, however, was not exactly a favorite among many elites. Servius had been increasingly favoring the most impoverished people in order to obtain favors from the plebeians. His legislation was thus extremely distasteful to the patrician order, and his reign of forty-four years was brought to a bloody close by a conspiracy in 535 BC headed by his son-in-law Tarquinius Superbus and his own daughter Tullia. The street where Servius died by having a chariot driven over him became known as the "Vicus Sceleratus" (Street of Infamy). It is appears his daughter was driving the chariot, apparently to make a personal statement of her own.


Generation No. 91

1. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus [90] Lucius Tarquintus Priscus (=Tanaquil) [89] Demaratus the Corinthian (= Tarquinii) [88] unknown

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535 BCE – 496 BCE) was the seventh King of Rome, reigning from 535 until the Roman revolt in 509 BCE, the latter which would lead to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is more commonly known by his cognomen Tarquinius Superbus and was a member of the Etruscan dynasty of Rome. Superbus was also called Tarquin the Proud and Tarquin II among other titles and/or names. Not surprisingly, Superbus killed the preceding king, his brother-in-law, Servius Tullius, to make himself king of Rome.

Married: unknown

Sextus Tarquinius (married to a daughter of Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum)
Titus Tarquinius
Aruns Tarquinius

In 579 BCE, Superbus' mommy, Queen Tanaquil had aided [they might not have been able to do it otherwise] in the selection of Servius Tullius as heir to the Roman throne following the assassination of her husband, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. The latter dastardly act had actually been carried out by the sons of the previous king (Ancus Marcius). Prior to that assassination, Tarquin's (Superbus’) older brother Aruns Tarquinius had married Servius Tullius' daughter Tullia... who later arranged a plot with Superbus to usurp the throne by first killing Aruns Tarquinius (as part of their pre-coronation arrangement), and then, the king, Servius Tullius in 534 BCE. Superbus then summoned the Senate, in which Tullia proclaimed him the "new king." Immediately thereafter, Tullia, in the tradition of intensely assertive wives and daughters, ran over her father's body with her chariot [aka using her own personal "super bus"]. [Father-daughter relationships can indeed have their moments.]

Superbus promptly orchestrated the murders of key senators, i.e., those who had supported Servius Tullius and proceeded at once to repeal his predecessor's social reforms... thereby seeking to establish a pure despotism in their place. Wars were waged with the Latins and Etruscans, but the lower classes were deprived of their arms and employed in erecting monuments of regal magnificence, while the sovereign recruited his armies from his own retainers and from the forces of foreign allies. His authority over the city was confirmed by: 1) the leveling of the top of the Tarpeian Rock that overlooked the Forum and the removal of its ancient Sabine shrines; 2) the completion of the fortress temple to Jupiter on the nearby Capitoline Hill; and 3) the marriage of his son, Sextus Tarquinius, to the daughter of Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, an alliance which secured him powerful assistance in the field.

According to one story, when Superbus was approached by the Cumaean Sibyl, she offered him nine books of prophecy at an exorbitant price. Superbus refused, and the Sibyl proceeded to burn three of the nine. She then offered him the remaining books, but at the same price. Superbus hesitated, but refused again. The Sibyl then burned three more books and again offered him the three remaining Sibylline Books at the original price. At last Superbus accepted. As the Sibylline Books were housed in the fortress temple of Jupiter, their legend has been associated with him. [Of course, the first six books described in detail how Superbus would attempt to unsuccessfully negotiate a commercial transaction with Sibyl... while the remaining three books contained the prophecy that the name of Tarquinius was pretty much history.]

Superbus was cruelly and maliciously described as a tyrant and dictator when ruling the kingdom. [And just because he had taken pure despotism to a radically... pardon the insinuation... new height.] He directed much of his attention to ambitious war plans and he eventually annexed various Latin neighboring city states. In 509 BCE the people revolted as a result of his son Sextus Tarquinius' rape of Lucretia, who was an important noblewoman in the kingdom.

Lucretia's kinsman Lucius Junius Brutus (himself a member of the Tarquinian dynasty) and Lucretia's widowed husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus (grand-nephew of Tarquinus Priscus and thus also a member of the dynasty) led the revolt. They were also aided by Publius Valerius Poplicola (the latter a distant relative of Pompious Vallium Pepsicola) and Lucretia's aging father, Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus. The uprising resulted in the exile, after a reign of twenty-five years, of Superbus and his family, and the establishment of the Roman Republic, with Brutus and Collatinus as the first consuls... primarily because they were the only ones who could keep all the names straight.

After his exile, Superbus attempted to gain the support of other Etruscan and Latin kings, claiming that republicanism would spread beyond Rome... apparently in some ancient ‘domino theory”. Even though the powerful Etruscan lord Lars Porsenna of Clusium (modern Chiusi) backed Superbus' return, all efforts to force his way back to the throne were in vain. He left two older sons, Titus Tarquinius and Aruns Tarquinius, who were killed in 509 BCE in one of his father's wars to regain the throne. Superbus died in exile at Cumae, Campania in 496 BCE.

[Just prior to getting into the Julius Caesars and the like, it’s worth noting that few if any modern parents... for whatever inexplicable reasons... include such a fascinating name as Lucius Tarquinius Superbus when naming their children. (Even if occasionally one might name a son, Superfly.) Why not, for example, name a son “Fred Lucius Tarquinius Superbus Jones”... or their daughter, Nancy Lucreia Tarquinia Supertaxi Lee? No imagination? Okay... how about Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus Smith? I mean, like, we’re talking here about one of the heroes of the revolution! Who wouldn’t be proud of such a name?]


2. Quintus Marcius Rex [91] Two teenage sons [90] Ancus Marcius [89] Pompilia (=Marcius) [88] Numa Pompilius (=Tatia)... or direct from Romulus (=Hersilia) [87] Romulus (=Hersilia) [86] Rhea Silvia (=Mars/Ares)[85] Numitor [84] Procas [83] Aventinus [82] Romulus Silvius [81] Agrippa [80] Tibernius Silvius [79] Capetus [78] Capys [77] Atys [76] Alba [75] Latinus Silvius [74] Aeneas Silvius [73] Silvius (I) [72] Aeneas (=Lavinia) [71] Anchises (=Inanna) [70] Capys (=Themiste) [69] Assaracus (=Aigesta) [68] Tros (=Callirrhoe; or Acallaris) [67] Erichthonius (=Astyoche) [66] Dardanus (=Batea) [65] ---- Enki (=Electra) [5] Anu and Antu [4] Anshar and Kishar [3] Lahmu and Lahamu [2] Tiamat and Absu [1]

Quintus Marcius Rex was a member of the Marcii Reges, the family founded by the Roman King Ancus Marcius. His father, praetor in 144 BC, built the Aqua Marcia aqueduct, the longest aqueduct of ancient Rome. Marcius carried on war against the Stoeni, a Ligurian people at the foot of the Alps, and obtained a triumph in the following year on account of his victories over them. During his consulship, Marcius lost his only son, a youth of great promise, but Marcius had such a mastery over his feelings that he was able to meet the senate on the day of his son's burial, and still perform his regular official duties.

Somewhat more importantly, however, he also had a daughter, Marcia Regia, who in the true tradition of matriarchal cultures was keeping the bloodline warm and alive. She also managed to insert herself and her children into the up and coming Caesar clan (both Sextus and Julius), by the simple expedient of marrying Gaius Julius Caesar II... the latter who is probably not the Julius Caesar you’re thinking of. That Julius Caesar one was her grandsons.



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Gaius Julius Caesar (I - IV)




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