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New -- 20 March 2004


© 1994, 2003 Dan Sewell Ward

Interlude II -- MesoAmerica

A difficulty in one's eagerness to compile a history of the world is that there is a strong tendency to judge everything from the viewpoint of first the Middle East and then Europe (and only very lately the Americas ). Reality checks being what they are, however, it is noteworthy that things were also happening in Africa, China, and MesoAmerica (the latter being roughly that stretch of ground from south of the United States border to the highlands of Peru and Bolivia ). In fact, there is a strange relationship between the goings-on in the Sumerian, Egyptian, and other theaters of ancient history to that happening in both China and in the central latitudes of the Western Hemisphere .

For example, there is the distinctive similarity between the Great Pyramids of Egypt and those of Teotihuacan in central Mexico . There is also the fact that the two primary sources of tin in the entire world are Cornwall in England and near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Inasmuch as an adequate supply of tin is essential to the quality of bronze – and there are various Bronze Ages in history (which are in turn defined by the percentages of tin to copper) – it is inevitable Bolivia would require being visited by the inhabitants of the Eastern Hemisphere at an early stage. There are even hints about MesoAmerica in the Biblical Book of Job (where “the lion's whelps have not trodden it, nor the fierce lion passed by it.” Job 28:8).

Zecharia Sitchin makes the best arguments for the South American connection in his book, very neatly entitled, The Lost Realms [1]. Sitchin, as might be expected, attributes the influx of gods and men into the Americas to the Anunnaki, where in the Western Hemisphere the so-called mythological gods are named, for example, Viracocha or Quetzalcoatl, with Viracocha quite possibly equated to the Sumerian Ishkur (Inanna's twin brother, aka “The Storm God”), while Quetzalcoatl might well be the Sumerian Ningishzidda and/or the Egyptian Thoth.

What follows below, therefore, is the history of those lost realms, ancient histories in which we find numerous connections with much of what had transpired half a world away.



25,000 (± 5,000) -- Humans make their first appearance in the New World arriving from Asia across an icy land bridge to Alaska . That is to say, according to modern day “scholarly” theories which assume that these hardy travelers were accompanied ostensibly by women and children -- all going to a New World they supposedly knew nothing about, and for no known reason or motivation to make the journey. The alternative view (by Sitchin, et al, and the Aztecs/Nahuatl legends) is that about 16,000 B.C.E. they came by boat (on perhaps a Holiday Cruise Ship), took up residence, found work and/or suitable locations for temples and mines, and according to many of these legends, may have arrived initially at Cape Santa Helena in Ecuador.

15,608 -- The beginning of the Age of the First Sun, the Age of White Haired Giants (Aztec), or the Age of Viracochas (the “White and Bearded Gods”). According to the Codex Vaticano-Latino 3738, the first Sun lasted 4,008 years. The End of the First Sun came about because of a great catastrophe, in this case, the deluge. [There is nothing like a worldwide event to make a viable connection between far flung cultures. Think of this as Connection Numero Uno.]

15,000 -- Kalasasaya, a rectangular enclosure measuring some 450 by 400 feet, is constructed. It is delineated by a series of vertical stone pillars (named “The Standing Pillars”). Of somewhat more significance, the structure appears to be based on the distance and angles between the two solstice points -- which in turn depends on the obliquity of the Earth against the Sun. The angle of 23 o 8' 48” – which takes into account the geographical position and elevation of the site -- suggests that Kalasasaya was built circa 15,000 B.C. The man figuring this date, Posnansky, later accepted the correct angle of obliquity to be 24 o 6' 52.8”, leaving a choice of two other dates: 10,150 and 4050.

But the 15,000 one could be the correct date, depending on the data used. Meanwhile, the 4000 B.C.E. date is more in line with the dates of the megalithic remains in Cuzco and Machu Picchu . Posnansky also concluded that the first phase of Tiahuanaca was built when the level of Lake Titicaca was about one hundred feet higher and before the whole area had been engulfed by an avalanche of water (perhaps the famous Great Flood, circa 11,600 B.C.E.). He also concluded that the city had been settled in three phases and by two races (one a Mongoloid people, then a middle eastern Caucasian race -- but at no time by any Negroid people). He also concluded that there had been a second, sudden upheaval of an unknown nature (other than the Flood). [1]

“Every version of every legend in the Andes points to Lake Titicaca for the Beginning -- the place where the great god Viracocha performed his creative feats, where mankind reappeared after the Deluge, where the ancestors of the Incas were granted a golden wand with which to establish Andean civilization.”

Tiahuanaca is at 13,000 feet elevation (similar to the twin peaks of Ararat (17,000 and 13,000). Lake Titicaca gets its name from one of two islands, where legends tell, the rays of the Sun had struck Titikalla, the sacred rock, as soon as the Sun appeared after the Deluge. (It is therefore also known as the Island of the Sun.) It was there, at the sacred rock, that Viracocha granted the divine wand to Manco Capac. Titi, by the way, is the name for either lead of tin. This might suggest that Titicaca was one of the primary sources of tin.

11,600 -- The Deluge and the end of the Age of the First Sun. According to the Mexica-Nahuatl timetable, the deluge occurred 13,133 years before the time of writing the codex. This suggests C.E. 1533 for the date of the codex (or 14 years after Cortez). This is also the time of the beginning of the Age of the Second Sun, the Tzoncuztique, Golden Age (Aztecs), or the Age of Giants (Inca). This Age lasted 4,010 years, and ended with a calamity involving the Wind Serpent.

11,000 -- The Paleolithic shifts to the Mesolithic Era in the Near East . [The ages of man, according to Greek and biblical sources were the Stone, Clay, Gold, Silver, Bronze (copper), and Iron.]

7,590 -- Beginning of the Age of the Third Sun, the Age of the Red Haired People (the first to arrive in America. according to the Aztecs, and presided over by the Fire Serpent), or the Age of Primitive Man (Inca). According to the chronicler Ixtilxochitl [who is reputed to have spent 12 years learning how to pronounce his name], these people were the survivors of the second age who had come by ship from the east to the New World, settling in the area he called Botonchan; they encountered there giants who also survived the second age, and became enslaved by them. The Third Sun lasted 4,081 years, and ended, possibly, due to Quakes and Storms.

7400 -- Neolithic (Stone Age) begins in the Near East , reaching England by 3000-2500 B.C.E. It was during this period when men began to obtain gold and copper. Both were immediately workable – i.e. did not require mixing or smeltering -- because they are found in their “natural state”, often as nuggets. But while gold was just as available as copper (and had the advantage that it did not oxidize), Near Eastern man of this early millennia did not utilize the gold in any way, while at the same time, did not limit his use of copper. The ostensible reason is that gold belonged to the Gods ! Gold would not be used for adorning temples and palaces for another 5,000 years.

7000 -- Date of burial of human mummies discovered recently in northern Chili, near Peru .

4000 -- The orientation of the megalithic walls in Cuzco and Sacsahuaman (the latter pronounced “Sexy Woman”) suggest that “they are positioned for the era of 4000 B.C.E. to 2000 B.C.E. The legendary Three Windows of Machu Pichu were, however, considered to be much earlier!

The founding of Cuzco and Sacsahuaman may correspond in their timing to an event in Sumer early in the fourth millennium B.C.E, when the Anunnaki head gods, Anu and Antu paid a visit to Earth. A ceremonial meal began with a ritual washing of hands on a celestial signal -- the appearance of Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, Mars, and the Moon – allowing scholars to date the event. It was a major event in the early histories of mankind.

At this time, twelve became the hallowed celestial number and seven the sacred terrestrial number. In addition, a point was chosen -- the Spring Equinox -- and the zodiac house in which the Sun was seen at that moment was declared the first day of the first month of the New Year. All research of the earliest records demonstrates that this was in the zodiac house or Age of Taurus. [Because of the Precession of the Equinoxes (a 25,920 year time period) it was necessary, some two millennia after the calendar was begun in Sumer, to order a reform of the calendar and select as the fixed point the house of Aries. But despite the passage of the Age of Pisces and the oncoming Age of Aquarius, we're still using the Aries' zodiac. Maybe it's time to change to Aquarius Time!]

3800 – Meanwhile, the Sumerian civilization blossomed out, at which time real mining, processing ores, and metallurgical sophistication appeared on the scene. This was a complex and advanced body of knowledge that the ancient peoples said was given to them by the Anunnaki. Astonishingly by 3700 B.C., every culture in Mesopotamia – but not MesoAmerica -- was based on metalworking. This included silver (requiring extraction from veins inside rocks), lead (requiring chemical processing in a furnace), casting of metals, and tin. It is noteworthy that by 3500 B.C., the Sumerian texts had no less than thirty terms for varieties of copper, be it processed or unprocessed. There were even “white stones”, or colored minerals obtained by mining. This metallurgical stage is reached in Egypt around 3200 B.C., and by 2500 B.C., the entire region between the Nile cataracts and the Indus is metal mined. The Chinese were also starting metallurgy at this time, but did not become true metallurgists until the Lungshan period, 1800--1500 B.C. In Europe the earliest metal objects are hardly earlier than 2000 B.C.

3,509 -- Beginning of the Age of the Fourth Sun, the Age of the Black Headed People (Aztec), or the Age of Heroes (Inca). This is the era in which Quetzalcoatl appeared in Mexico -- tall of stature, bright of countenance, bearded, and wearing a long tunic. His staff, shaped like a serpent, was painted black, white, and red [reminiscent of American Indians' mythology of three races of Man]. The staff was inlaid with precious stones and adorned with six stars.

It was during this era that Tollan, the Toltec capital, was built (and Tenochtitlan was abandoned -- first by the Toltecs and then by the Aztecs). Toward the end of the Fourth Sun, wars between the gods were taking place. [The Battle of the Titans?] The gods' war brought havoc to the land; wild animals overran mankind, and Tollan was abandoned. Five years later the Chichimec tribes -- alias the Aztecs arrived -- and the Fifth Sun, the Aztec era, began. The fourth Sun had begun 5,042 years before the time of the Codex Vaticano-Latino 3738 (1533). The time the Fourth Sun ended is not stated, but the Codex was written during the Fifth Sun. The Fourth Sun may have perished by means of the Jaguar. The Fifth Sun is referred to as the Age of Kings by the Incas.

3500 -- The Old Bronze Age officially begins in the Middle East – accompanied by festivals and all manner of learning to play the gongs (an early version of “The Gong Show”). It is perhaps worth recalling that bronze is a mixture of copper and tin. The Sumerian rule-of-thumb for the ratio of the two alloys is 1:6 – about 85% copper and 15% tin (an excellent combination for a high quality bronze). Bronze can be shaped only by casting (not by hammering or annealing), and the tin for it must be obtained from its ores through a process called smelting and recovery from an ore called cassiterite . Smelting is required to separate the tin from the cassiterite / limestone.

Tin is also a metal difficult to find. Sumerian sources were quickly exhausted, but texts mention two “tin mountains” in a far land. In some legends, Inanna may have had to transverse mountains to find its place. The Sumerian word for tin is AN.NA (literally “Heavenly Stone”), while Bronze was called ZA.BAR, “Gleaming Double Metal”.

3172 – Meanwhile, other innovations were being conducted on the MesoAmerican plane. The date of 3172 B.C.E. corresponds to a grid laid out, which connects Tiahuanaca, Ollantaytambu, Cuzco , and Machu Picchu . Ollantaytambu might have been a stronghold (like Sacsahuaman or Baalbek in Lebanon ), or (according to Zecharia Sitchin ) a spaceport. The grid was a precise 45 o angle to the equator (as in Mesopotamia to Baalbek ). [The Anunnaki first anchored a landing corridor on some outstanding geographical feature (e.g. Mount Ararat ), then inclined the corridor at a precise 45 o angle with the equator. In postdiluvial times, when the spaceport was in the Sinai Peninsula and the landing place for airborne craft at Baalbek , the grid followed the same pattern.]

3113 -- August 13, 3113 B.C.E. is the enigmatic Day One of the Mayan calendar's “Long Count”. The Long Count, like two other calendars used by the Mayas, was based on a vigesimal (“times twenty”) mathematical system. This is similar to Sumerian counting, with a 1 in a first column being 1, twenty in the next column, and four hundred in the third. The roots of the African Olmecs' arrival, according to Sitchin, must be sought in the mysterious beginning date of the Long Count.

3100 -- Sun Temple built at Heliopolis ( Egypt ).

2900/2800 -- Enki (Oannes) builds Stonehenge I (approximately the time of the Neolithic arriving in England ). Stonehenge I was fairly simple compared to later Stonehenges.

2600 -- The great surge into the Bronze Age in Sumeria slowed down at this time. Dwindling supplies of tin could be seen in the lowering of the percentage of tin in bronze -- down to as little as 2%. This implied a distinct lessening of the quality of the bronze. More tin was needed. A search team was organized for the purpose of finding a better supply of tin.

2600/2400 -- Five hundred years after Point Zero (the Mayan Day One), four Ayar brothers and four sisters were sent to find Cuzco with the aid of a golden object. Known as the Prime Tinbuster, one was Pirua Manco ( Peru ), whose sister bore him a son, Manco Capac. Manco was the first Inca, and the builder of the Temple to the Great God, Viracocha. He established a line of 62 kings, which ruled at Cuzco , and which included 16 semi-divine rulers (sons of the Sun God -- of which Manco was the first), and 46 priest kings. All Andean legends of Beginnings commence on the shores of Lake Titicaca , at a place called Tiahuanaca. Cuzco had been established by the Children of the Sun, who had been created and instructed at Lake Titicaca by the Creator God, Viracocha.

Viracocha, according to Andean legends, was a great God of Heaven who had come to Earth in great antiquity, choosing the Andes as his creative arena. According to one Inca version, the first monarch, Manco Capac, exited from Lake Titicaca through a subterranean path. He was the son of the Sun and was given by the Sun a golden wand with which to find Cuzco . When his mother went into labor, the world was in darkness. When he was born, there were lights and sounding trumpets, and the god Pachacamac declared that “the beautiful day of Manco Capac had dawned.”

Another version [which may be fleshed in with the first] claims that the true ancestors of the Incas were immigrants from somewhere else who had arrived in Peru by sea. In this version Manco Capac was the son of a sailor man, a king called Atua who had arrived on the Peruvian coast with two hundred men and women and disembarked at Rimac. From there they went to Ica , and thence to Lake Titicaca , the place from which the Sons of the Sun had governed the Earth. Manco Capac sent his followers in two directions to find those legendary Sons of the Sun. He himself wandered many days until he came to a place that had a sacred cave. The cave was artificially hewed out and was adorned with gold and silver. Manco Capac left the sacred cave and went to a window call Capac Toco, meaning “Royal Window”. As he came out, he was dressed in golden garments he had obtained in the cave; and by putting on those garments, he was invested with the kingship of Peru . [All of the three tales above may be connected.]

But notice that all involve the arrival from a distant shore by way of the sea, a trek with proper tools to find the critical resources (Cuzco, Titicaca, whatever), and then a reward for one having hewed out the cave/mine. Plus which, it was all about gold and a “sacred cave”.

Then there is the subsequent history of the Incas, in which they were followed by the Dinkas and the Dos. (In other words, “Inca, Dinka, Do!”)

2500 – According to wholly unrelated sources, Indo-Europeans may have crossed the Pacific and settled on the peninsula of Santa Elena (now Ecuador ) which, with its nearby La Plata Island , juts out into the Pacific. This is the Naymlap tale of the first settlements (what is called a Valdivian Phase), and supposedly occurred before the two waves of African “giants” and Mediterranean Bearded Ones. In this connection it is worth noting that stone tablets found at Aija and Callejon de Huaylus in the northern Andes show a hero wrestling with and defeating two lions with his bare hands. Such a tale is similar, of course, to those attributed to Gilgamesh (2900 B.C.E.) and a later Hittite version. Of course, there are no lions in South America !

These arrival tales are not only vastly different from the silly across-an-Artic-land-bridge by families looking for homesteads, but they also hint at the fact the various immigrations were inspired by different members of the Anunnaki, the latter who were often at odds with one another. This of course did not bode well with peace being a natural offshoot in the Americas .

2200 -- An abrupt change occurred as the Middle East charges into the Middle Bronze Age. This shift of ages was due simply to the quality of bronze returning to its previous heights. In other words, the search for tin had been successful and there was now enough tin to make the kind of bronze of which the Gods could be proud. Sitchin thinks the sudden new source was Lake Titicaca . [It is conceivable that they were mining gold there at an early time, and then added tin to their exports at this time. This may be the tin mountains previously mentioned.]

Bolivia is still a major source of the world's tin. In fact, in only two places has tin ore been found in its original lodes: Cornwall and Bolivia . The area southeast of La Paz and east of Lake Poopo shows archeological signs of reduced (i.e. recovered) and melted tin, along with bronze of 88% copper, similar to ancient bronzes of Europe and the Near East . The sites appeared to be “from extremely ancient periods”. In fact, some of the earliest examples of bronze artifacts in South America appear to have been based on Old World shapes and Old World technologies. Surprise!

One might mention that the three great civilizations of the Old World ( Sumeria , Egypt , Indus Valley ) arose in fertile river valleys. Tiahuanaca does not fit this pattern and is a very inhospitable, non-agriculture place. But between Lake Titicaca and Cuzco , most of the Incan gold was found.

When tin supplies in the Near East improved so abruptly, an enigmatic people appeared on the Near Eastern scene. Their neighbors called then Cassites {”Korsseans” to the later Greeks). There is no scholarly explanation for this name. But perhaps their name derives from cassiterite, the ore from which tin is derived. Just a random thought.

Meanwhile, in the Biblical Book of Job , Chapter 28, we find:

1 Surely there is a vein [source] for the silver, and a place for gold where they [re]fine it.

2 Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass [copper] is molten out of the stone.

3 He setteth an end to darkness, and searcheth out all perfection; the stones of darkness, and the shadow of death. [Manco Capac's uncles and aunts being the search team for the tin and resources to end the dark ages?]

4 The flood breaketh out from the inhabitant: even the waters forgotten of the foot: they are dried up; they are gone away from men. [The Flood has receded and the land dried?]

5 As for the earth, out of it cometh bread: and under it is turned up as if were fire. [”There is a land of which the ingots come.” The bread may be the ores of gold, silver, and copper.]

6 The stones of it are the place of sapphires [blue-green stones, as in copper?]; and it hath dust of gold.

7 There is a land which no fowl knoweth, and which the vulture's eye hath not seen; [Beyond the range of local birds, and no previous human death?]

8 The lion's whelps have not trodden it, nor the fierce lion passed by it. [With South America having never seen a lion.]

9 He putteth forth his hand upon the rock; he overturneth the mountains by the roots. [Strip mining and/or deep pit mining.]

10 He cutteth out rivers among the rocks, and his eye seeth every precious thing. [The mining operation taken to new heights, with the ore being conveyed out, and precise separation of metals from raw ore being conducted?]

11 He bindeth the floods from overflowing; and the thing that is hid bringeth he forth to light. [No more Great Floods. Happy days are here again.]

Clearly the Americas have not seen the lion, and the evidence is that beginning at Lake Titicaca , the mining began in earnest to find gold, silver, copper, and even tin. The fact that rivers were cut out from the rock might also suggest placer mining (panning for gold).

2200 -- Silbury Hill in England is constructed. Being in the same region of the world as Cornwall – the alternative source of tin (in addition to Bolivia ) – perhaps there is a connection here. Perhaps Silbury Hill has something to do with tin mines in the out lying lands of Merry Olde England .

2100 -- Temple to Amon-Ra constructed at Karnak with a solstice orientation. Sitchin also claims that Egyptian temples were equinox oriented in 2100, and solstice oriented in 1200.

2100/2000 -- Stonehenge II, and III (IIIb in the year 2000) constructed.

Apparently the company, Tin Is Us, is branching out, setting up shop (and residence) in all sorts of outlying locations – going where the gold (or tin) is.

2000 – All hell breaks loose in Sumeria, as Sodom and Gomorrah are atom bombed, and the winds carry radioactive carnage to Ur of the Chaldees. The Sumerian civilization ceases to exist.

This major change in the Middle East , accompanied by major religious upheavals, took place circa 2000 B.C.E. with the transition from the zodiac of the Bull to that of the Ram. Such changeovers and reforms are also evidenced in the Andes . In 400 B.C., for example, the 40 th monarch of the Ancient Empire established an academy for the study of astronomy and astrology and determined the equinoxes. The fact that he was given the title Pachacutec indicates that the calendar was at that time so much out of synchronization with the celestial phenomena that its reform became imperative. Clearly, this time was the approximate time of shifting from the age of Aries to Pisces . This also indicates that the original calendar in the Andes was started circa 2000 B.C. (at the beginning of the Age of Aries). Later, the Incas “commenced to count the year in the middle of May”, May 25 (as determined by astronomical alignments), a full month earlier than the winter solstice of June 21. Clearly, the Incas were relying on the old calendar, which was last changed circa 400 B.C. Note also that the first ward of Cuzco , on the slopes of Sacsahuaman, was associated with Aries (i.e. circa 2000 B.C.E.).

Meanwhile, back at the ranch in Babylon (which lies sufficiently north of Sumeria to avoid the clouds of radioactivity), in the second millennium B.C.E., temples began requiring a triple alignment consisting of one aligned: 1) to the new zodiac (that of Aries), 2) to the matching four solar points (the most important of which, in Babylon, was the spring equinox), and 3) to the lunar period. In Egypt , at the beginning of their civilization, the triple alignment was to combine a stellar aspect (the brightest star then being Sirius) with a solar event (the summer solstice) and with the annual rising of the Nile . This triple coincidence happens only once in about 1,460 years, suggesting that the Egyptian Point Zero, when its calendar count began, was circa 3200 B.C. [This triple alignment would appear to be an Ptah/Enki inspired concept in Egypt , with his son, Marduk, doing the same in Babylon .]

On the other side of the world at the beginning of the second millennium, the Olmec Civilization sprung up along the Mexican gulf coast. It was in full bloom, at some forty sites, by 1500 to 1200 B.C.E. (the date of the colossal heads). It stretched across MesoAmerica by 800 B.C.E. By the beginning of the Christian era, the Olmecs abandoned their sites, and even attempted to bury the colossal heads. Whoever gained access to the sites afterward, made every effort to destroy them. The heads were decidedly Negroid in their characteristics. From the archaeological record, the Olmecs appeared to have been miners – having come to the New World to extract gold and other metals. The legends of Votan, for example, speak of tunneling through mountains.

Also, among the Olden Gods whose worship was adopted from the Olmecs by the Nahautl people was the god Tepeyolloti, meaning “Heart of the Mountain”, a bearded God of Caves, whose temple had to be of stone, preferably built inside a mountain. [The God of Mines?]

At the La Venta site, the art of the period seemed to reflect a tradition based in large part on the meridian transits of stars occurring on the solstices and equinoxes around 2000 B.C.E. This would make La Venta the earliest “sacred center” in MesoAmerica , preceding Teotihuacan except for the legendary time when gods alone were there.

2000-1000 -- Votan, whose emblem was the Serpent, a descendant of the Guardians, of the race of Can, came from a land called Chivim. He was “the first man whom God had sent to this region to people and parcel out the land that is now called America .” From now until circa C.E. 200, Yucatan was in the “Pre-Classic” Mayan period.

1900 – During the reign of the 5 th Capac, the time frame of 1000 years was introduced as a Great Period, with centuries and periods being 50 years each (similar to the biblical Jubilee year of 50 years). In the reign of the 12 th Capac, there is the quote: “Men of great stature... giants who were settling on the whole coast. But they provoked the Great God, who destroyed them with a heavenly blast.” [Looks like the old Anunnaki wars of the Middle East are now in Middle America !]

1680 -- Stonehenge IIIc constructed.

1500 -- Mycenaean Grave Circles constructed.

1500 – C.E. 1000 -- Izapa, city on Mexican/Quatemalan coast becomes the apparent source from which the art belonging to the Early and Middle Preclassic Olmecs spread to other sites along the Pacific slopes of Mexico and Guatemala . [This spread of the art, a century prior to Sun, Stand Thou Still, might have been intentional act to spread the wealth and improve its survival!]

At about the same time, the people of Chavin (e.g. at Chavin de Huantar, located at an elevation of 10,000 feet!!) flourished in the mountains that lie in northern Peru between the coast and the Amazon basin. The city arose suddenly and with no apparent prior or gradual development. At Chavin de Huantar, an area of some 300,000 square feet was flattened and terraced and made suitable for the construction of complex structures, carefully and precisely laid out according to a preconceived plan that took into consideration the contours and features of the site.

1474 -- The Olmecs construct Teotihuacan (the Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, and other structures, as well as establish great “ceremonial centers” elsewhere in Mexico . (This date is based on radiocarbon dating.) The site may have been a “Place of the Gods” as early as 4000 B.C.E. (i.e. within the Fourth Sun period). The peaks of the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon are at the same elevation even though the Pyramid of the Moon is built on ground some 30 feet higher that than of the Sun's Pyramid (the difference giving their peaks equal height above sea level). This arrangement is also seen in the case of the Second Pyramid and the Great Pyramid at Giza . Finally, the Pyramid of the Sun, with a base of 745 feet, fits neatly within the Great Pyramid's base of 754 feet; but has a lower angle of 43.5 o (vice the Great Pyramid's 52 o ).

[Note that only the Giza pyramids have an angle of 52 o . Pharaoh Zoser's attempt at Sakkara (c. 2700 B.C.E.) was also at 43.5 o , while Pharaoh Sneferu (c. 2650 B.C.E.) attempted a 52 o angle, only to have it collapse -- whereupon he changed it to 43.5 o in mid-construction. Sneferu's pyramid thus became known as the Bent Pyramid. According to legend the pyramids were built by pharaohs, but the Giza pyramids were built by the gods.

It is extremely important to recognize that 52 o can be obtained by giving the pyramid a height (H) equal to half the side (S), divided by p (pi) and multiplied by four. In the case of the Great Pyramid of Giza, this corresponds to (754 feet to a side divided by 2 equals 377, which in turn is divided by 3.14 to yield 120, the latter which is multiplied by 4 to obtain 480 feet). The angle of 43.5 o is obtained by the same formula, except by multiplying times 3 instead of 4 . The Pyramid of the Sun uses the 43.5 o angle initially, but then is stepped into the center four times, so that it's ultimate height becomes only 250 feet.]

For what it's worth, in 1971 a secret passageway was discovered under the Pyramid of the Sun. Some of the flooring was covered with thick sheets of mica, a silicone whose special properties make it resistant to water, heat, and electrical currents. The type of mica, however, can only be found in its natural state in Brazil .

1433 -- Exodus of Hebrews from Egypt .

1393 -- In the third year of the reign on the 15 th Capac, Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II, when “good customs were forgotten and people were given to all manner of vice”, “there was no dawn for twenty hours” (sunrise was delayed for twenty hours). This was known also as The Day of Darkness and may have been the motivation for the two great pyramids of Teotihuacan being raised to their monumental sizes. [This or course tallies with the day the Sun stood still for the Jewish people in the aftermath of the Exodus – Joshua 10:13 ]

722 -- Ten Lost Tribes of Israel are exiled by the Assyrians and then vanish without a trace (the remaining kingdom of Judea being retained by the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin).

600 B.C.E . -- The Phoenicians in 600 B.C. circumnavigated Africa in search of gold for the Egyptian king Necho (thus emulating a feat performed for King Solomon four centuries earlier).

600/400 -- 2500 years from the Mayan Point Zero and 2000 years since kingship had begun at Cuzco , the 40 th Capac (in the 5 th year of his reign) introduced the leap year and leap century – about 2000 years before the brain trust at the Vatican included it in their Gregorian Calendar.

425 -- The Phoenicians under a leader named Hanno sailed around West Africa to establish gold and slave supply routes. An extant map of Piri Re'is, a Turkish admiral, with a date of C.E. 1513, correctly shows the Andean mountains of South America -- including the Amazon River flowing from them eastward, and the South American Pacific coast from Ecuador through Peru to midway in Chili. Hapgood [2] has concluded that “the evidence presented by the ancient maps appears to suggest the existence in remote times... of a true civilization of an advanced kind”; more advanced than Greece or Rome , and in nautical sciences ahead of 18 th century Europe . Hapgood recognizes Mesopotamian culture dating back to 4000 B.C., but with descriptions of Antarctica , wonders as to who preceded the Mesopotamians.

It's also noteworthy that Ptolemy's Map of the World shows a mythical land, Tierra Mitica, extending from the tip of southern China beyond a peninsula called the Peninsula of Gold, all the way southward to a continent we now call Antarctica. The shape of Tierra Mitica, however, conforms to the shape of the western coast of South America where it juts into the Pacific (which is where the Andean legends placed the prehistoric landings). Ptolemy's maps included a name for a place in the midst of Tierra Mitica, Cattigara (where the latter day Lambayeque is situated, the principal center of gold metallurgy in the whole American continent). This site is next to Chavin de Huantar – the city previously described in the Gold and Tin Run annals just above. Chavin de Huantar might not be mentioned here, except that its culture included in its pantheon a Bull God.

This chauvinistic Bull God existed despite the absence of bulls on the continent until brought over by the Spaniards. On the other hand, the Bull God was identified with ADAD or ISH.KUR -- “He of the Far Mountains ”, and is typically depicted with the metal tool and forked lightning (TESHUB to the Hittites and Cassites). Is this Viracocha? Possibly. “Some time in those remote days Ishkur / Teshub / Viracocha placed his symbol of the forked lightning -- for all to see from the air and from the ocean -- on a mountainside in the Bay of Paracas, the very bay the Hapgood team identified on Piri Re'is' map, the bay that was probably the anchorage harbor for the ships carrying the tin and bronze of Tiahuanaca to the Old World. It was a symbol proclaiming to gods and men alike: THIS IS THE REALM OF THE STORM GOD!

400 -- The Olmecs and the Bearded Ones push southward into Central America and the northern lands of South America . They probably progressed by boat, possibly commemorating the Andean legends of the arrival by sea of their own ancestors (as well as two separate versions by “giants”). One of these occurred in ancient empire times, the other in Mochica times.

At this point in history, the Olmecs and their bearded Near Eastern companions may have been fleeing the uprisings in Mesoamerica during this same time period. The legends point out that the invaders despoiled the land and raped the women, but the invasion does not appear to have gone beyond Chavin de Huantar. Tiahuanaca on Lake Titicaca , for example, was spared at this time.

This latter result may be due to some sort of unseen boundary between God-controlled areas. Note, for example, that the megalithic structures in the Andes ( Cuzco , Sacsahuaman and Machu Picchu ) all lie south of the unseen demarcation line between the two divine realms of Viracocha and Quetzalcoatl. It was here, where the inhabitants could obtain all their water needs from the Urubamba river below, that elaborate water funneling and channeling were created higher up to make water from spring, tributary, or rain sources flow in a desired direction. One site is called Cori-Huairachina, “Where gold is purified”. [Just in case you were wondering why all of these movements of people were being done!] Meanwhile, the Mochica, precursors to the Chimu (see B.C.E. 1000) had begun to demonstrate the art of casting gold.

200 -- Whoever had lorded over Teotihuacan picked up and left, leaving the place to become a Toltec city. For centuries it had been renowned for its tools, weapons, and artifacts. A curious aside is that Coyolxauhqui, sister of Huitzilopochtli, came to grief by his hand (she lost her head), during the rebellion of the four hundred gods in which she was involved. Sounds like just more of the Battle of the Titans, or a latter day version in the New World . The Anunnaki really don't get along with each other very well. It's the old Enki and Enlil saga all over again.

4 – The reign of the 58 th Capac.

Current Era (C.E.)

0 – Massive confusion begins as the ancients deal with changing their computers to read years in ascending order (instead of the descending order of B.C.E. times). In fact, just dealing with the year zero causes millions of suicides and the invention of psychiatry.

200 -- The “Classic” Mayan period begins (surviving until C.E. 900). It was at the latter date that, “five centuries before the Spanish arrival, for reasons unknown, the Maya abandoned their sacred cities and let the jungle take them over.” There is the possibility that “at some crucial calendar date in the ninth century A.D., a prophesied event failed to occur. All the cycles came together, and added up to naught. And so the ceremonial centers and the cities dedicated to the gods were abandoned, and the jungle cast its green mantle over the domain of the Serpent Gods.” [1]

At one of their cities, Palenque, a stepped pyramid called the Temple of Inscriptions has a secret internal stairway, at the bottom of which is buried a ruler, Pacal (“Shield”) who reigned in Palenque in C.E. 615-683, and who is unusually tall -- what Daniken suggested was an Extraterrestrial. [Of course, the Anunnaki were typically seven feet tall.] In the Great Plaza of Tikal, is buried the skeleton of another unusually tall man. Tikal was known to have had rulers reigning from C.E. 317 to A.D. 869; while carbon dating of some royal tombs goes back to 600 B.C.E.

This is also the time of the reign of the 62 nd Capac, which ended somewhat abruptly with earthquakes, comets, omens of destruction, wars and all manner of calamities. Among other things, writing was lost. The survivors fled to Tampu-Toco. From there 28 kings ruled from the 2 nd to the 11 th century A.D. Tampu-Toca was probably Machu Pichu, with its famous Three Windows.

[It is interesting to note that the end or massive change in one civilization corresponds to the date of the beginning of another. It's almost as if one civilization is defeated by all manner of calamity, and another – possibly the victor – rushes into the power vacuum.]

292 -- The date of a royal Mayan monument at Tikal (Stela 29), based on the Long Count.

600 -- 3,500 years from Point Zero, writing during the reign of the Capacs was revived, only to be stamped out by the priests. [Priests, in general, are spectacularly good at stamping out literacy.]

700 -- The Toltecs packed up and left Teotihuacan -- leaving it a desolate place -- and established Tollan as the Toltecs' new capital (which is now called Tula , 50 miles northwest of Mexico City ).

987 -- A religious conflict broke out among the Toltecs -- some demanding that human sacrifices be introduced in order to pacify the War god. [This sounds very modern in the time of Bush Wars.] The Toltec leader, Ce Acatl Topiltzin-Quetzalcoatl, left Tollan with his followers and migrated eastward, emulating the earlier legendary departure of the divine Quetzalcoatl. They settled in Yucatan – which the Mayans had long since vacated.

1000 -- The Chimu establish their capital at Chan-Chan (along the coast line in northern Peru ). They would flourish until about C.E. 1400 when the Incas would overwhelm them. Following their victories, the Incas were astounded by the amount of gold the Chimus possessed, particularly since the gold sources of Peru are in the highlands, and not in the arid coastlands.

1020 -- The Cuzco dynasty of Incas (a title meaning lord or sovereign) is established. Huayna Capac was the twelfth Inca and the father of the two Inca kings at the time of the conquest.

1100 – Roughly 4000 years from Point Zero, during the reign of the 90 th Capac, the first Inca, Rocca, the son of the Sun God, went back to Cuzco to continue his reign.

1140 -- The Mexica or Tenochas -- also known as the Aztecs -- arrive for the second time in the valley of Tenochtitlan . The ancestral home of the Aztecs was called Azt-lan (“ White Place ”) -- and the Aztecs believed themselves descended from the first patriarchal couple, Itzac-mixcoatl (“White Cloud Serpent”) and his spouse, Ilan-cue (“Old Woman”). The Toltecs were also descended from Itzac-mixcoatl, but their mother was another woman.

1168 -- The Toltecs are brought to their knees by natural catastrophes and onslaughts by other tribesmen. Seen as signs of divine wrath, Tollan was abandoned, and left to decay.

1325 -- The Aztecs established Tenochtitlan as their capital. The name means “City of Tenoch ” -- which may be a derivative of “City of Enoch ”, where “Enoch” means “foundation” (as in the biblical reference to the son of Cain). The Aztecs considered themselves the descendants of Tenoch, a legendary paternal figure from way, way, way back – and potentially, descendents of the Adam's Family (thus perhaps accounting for their fun-loving, human-sacrificial ways).

The Aztecs appear to have been a nomadic, uncouth immigrant tribe [of Republicans] that forced its way into a valley peopled by tribes with a more advanced culture [Independents]. After hiring on as mercenaries, they appear to have managed to overpower their neighbors and borrow not only their culture, but also their artisans [slavery]. One strange aspect is that their cotton was spun on clay spindles similar to those found in the ruins of Troy (second millennium B.C.E.) and sites in Palestine (third millennium B.C.E.). In their tools and weapons the Aztecs were in a stone age, possessing no metal tools or weapons. Even copper metallurgy had not been developed. For cutting and weapons, they used obsidian chips. And yet they possessed the craft of goldsmiths! Their picture writing in C.E. 1500 is similar to the earliest Egyptian writing; e.g. the time of king Narmer, considered to be the first dynastic king in Egypt .

1486 -- The Aztec leader preceding the famed Montezuma on the throne introduced the practice of cutting out the hearts of prisoners and offering the pulsating hearts in sacrifice to Huitzilopochtli. It was as if the Aztec civilization had had its progress arrested in its course, or they had imported a higher culture which covered, as a thin veneer, a coarser understructure.

1519 -- Cortez landed on the east coast of Mexico (Vera Cruz), and is mistaken by Montezuma, the ruler of the Aztecs, for the great god Quetzalcoatl. [This was the beginning of the “9 hells” – a not happy time for most anyone – but which ended in C.E. 1987. The latter is sometimes referred to by visitors to the same land, Montezuma's Revenge – a plague of dysentery.]

1530 -- Pizarro sails from Panama to Peru and began the conquest of the Incan Empire.

1533 -- The first Spaniards from Pizarro's party entered Cuzco , the Inca capital. Atahualpa, one of the two brothers vying for the Incan throne was being held prisoner at Cajamarca. Meanwhile, his half-brother, Huascar, had removed the “oval” in the Holy of Holies at Cuzco and replaced it with a round plate. This oval may have represented the orbit of Nibiru, and suggests a similarity between the cult of Viracocha, Brahma with the seven eyes, and the Israelite Yahweh. There was also a connection with the zodiacal sign Leo (despite the lack of lions in South America ) -- which in turn may connect with the fact that the calendar was begun in Sumer in the fourth millennium B.C.E. when the summer solstice occurred when the Sun was seen in Leo (UR.GULA in Sumerian).

It is extremely noteworthy that Pizarro ransomed the Inca king, Atahualpa, for 200,000 ounces of gold. The Inca king was of course killed anyway, but what is astounding is what Pizarro and the other Spaniards found at Cuzco , the Incan capital. Upon their arrival, the conquerors discovered gold everywhere, including a hoard of 500,000 pounds! [That's 8 million ounces of gold!] One golden throne weighed 4,000 ounces alone. One “garden” had a field of maize where every stalk was made of silver and the ears were made of gold (i.e., 180,000 square feet of golden corn)! For a period of 15 to 20 years, the Spaniards extracted from Peru the equivalent of over 6,000,000 ounces of gold and over 20,000,000 ounces of silver annually, for well over a cumulative total of 100,000,000 ounces of gold and over 300,000,000 ounces of silver.

Astoundingly, still to this day, gold seekers are looking for El Dorado . This is because the priests of the temple of Pachacamac (between Lima and Lurin) allegedly hid their gold from Pizarro. This additional hoard of gold was thought to be a main treasure drove , but this gold was never recovered (and many think it still exists in the area). It is known, for example, that literally tons of gold were tossed into Lake Titicaca by the natives in order to avoid letting the Spaniards have it. The gold was, according to the natives, sacred to the gods.

Perhaps, it still is.



[1] Zecharia Sitchin , The Lost Realms , Avon Books, New York , 1990.

[2] Charles H. Hapgood, Maps Of The Ancient Sea Kings; Evidence of Advanced Civilizations in the Ice Age , Chilton Books, Philadelphia and New York , 1966.


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Episode XIII -- A Brief Chronology 



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