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Superdeformation of Nuclei

Nuclei are considered to be superdeformed when the nucleus acquires an elongated shape that can be represented as an approximate ellipsoid where the ratio of the long to short axis is considerably larger than 1.3 to 1. [1]  Greiner and Sandulescu [2] have discussed in some detail how superasymmetric, superdeformed nuclei can spontaneously fission.  In these cases, the deformation is sufficiently extreme that the once spherical nucleus more closely resembles a bowling pin (but without the flat bottom).  While fission reactions are rare, their occurrence does emphasize the degree to which nuclear deformation can reach.   

Nuclear deformation is of interest for many reasons, but in the case of the precious metals, it is particularly important when these metals reach a condition of being a microcluster [3], or more significantly become monoatomic (not connected to like atoms).  In the case of microclusters being deposited in thin films, they can function as superconductors.  If one adds high spin to these monoatomic elements, the orbits of nucleons and electrons are reconfigured -- i.e. Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements (ORME).  

The Collective Model of the nucleus maintains that “the outer part of the nucleus can deform when the outer nucleons move with respect to the nucleons of the inner nucleus.” This model is similar to a liquid drop model.  These deformations, however, require that “the nucleus gain or lose energy.” [2]  The degree to which the shape of the nucleus reacts to the change in energy is strongly dependent upon the element in question.  Some nuclei are considered to be playing hard ball, while others are referred to as soft nuclei.  

As the electrons and their orbits are warped into toward the nucleus, the protons in the nucleus are more attracted to the closer electrons, and the result is nuclear deformation (but one which warps the nuclei into an alignment in the same direction as the force -- instead of the perpendicularly oriented electronic orbits).  Such nuclear superdeformations and similar phenomena in electrons may be conducive to the formation of Cooper pairs. And with Cooper pairs comes Superconductivity.  

The essence of the ORME theory is that one is dealing with high-spin, superdeformed nuclei, whose electrons form Cooper pairs, and thus the monoatomic elements become a beam of light, a superconducting medium.  Experiments with Fullerenes (clusters of 60 Copper atoms) have, when doped with Potassium, yielded superconductors (especially when imperfections are smoothed away by repeated heating and cooling.  This variable sequence of annealing allows the material to reach its ideal state.  

In strongly rotating, superdeformed nuclei, Shimizu and Broglia [4] have suggested that “superconductivity should disappear for particles in the quantal size effects (QSE’s) regime, when the energy difference between two discrete one-electron states is comparable to the energy gap of the superconducting state.  This means that small superconductors with fewer than 104 to 105 electrons as, e.g., atomic nuclei should be strongly affected by quantal size effects.”  Conversely, with fewer and fewer electrons, as one approaches the microcluster, and ultimately the monoatomic state, the superdeformed rotational bands contribute to the pairing correlations in nuclei.  

In a separate paper, Shimizu, et al, [5] have noted that, The most collective phenomenon displayed by the many-body nuclear system is independent particle motion, where all nucleons adjust their motions so that each proton and neutron move independently in an average field.  Striking regularities are associated with this phenomenon: for example, the appearance of large gaps in the single-particle system and of ‘magic’ numbers for both protons and neutrons leading to especially stable systems, known as closed shell nuclei.”  

The distinction between so-called closed shell nuclei and those of the Precious Metals is noteworthy. On the one hand, the precious elements, the Transition Elements of Group VIII in the Periodic Table of the Elements, have numbers of nucleons radically distinct from those elements having the closed shells predicted by Nuclear Shell Structure theory.  The latter shows closures when the number of nucleons are 2, 8, 20, 28, 40, 50, 82, 126, and 184.  On the other hand, the number of protons for Ruthenium through Silver are 44 through 47 (i.e. midway between 40 and 50); while Osmium through Gold has 76 through 79.  The numbers for neutrons of say, Rhodium 103 is 58; while Iridium 191 or 193, has 114 or 116 neutrons.  These are clearly distinct from the closed shells.  

On the other hand, Argon 38, which has a chemically closed shell for electrons (and is thus considered one of the inert gases -- i.e. little if any tendency toward chemical reactions -- also exhibits a closed shell of 20 neutrons, but does not have a closed shell of protons (18).  While this does not lead to superdeformation or superconductivity, it does, for reasons not readily explainable, cause Argon to be apparently critical as an impurity in air in the case of Sonoluminiscence.  Also, Calcium 40 has closed nuclear shells of protons and neutrons and is thus extremely stable from a nuclear viewpoint -- even though with two electrons to share, it is chemically quite active.  

“The discovery of superdeformed rotational bands during the past years opens a new chapter in the study of nuclei under conditions of extreme deformations and angular momenta.” “The spectra of rapidly rotating nuclei reveal two distinct components in the buildup of the total angular momentum, corresponding to alignment of orbital angular momentum of individual particles and to collective rotation.” [5]   

I.e. Spin is important!  Furthermore, this is the same angular momentum which is critical to Hyperdimensional Physics -- and if you really want to get right down to it, probably all aspects of Connective Physics.  By the simple expedient of rotating a nucleus (where the total number of nucleons is more than 150) to the point of superdeformation, it is thus possible to encounter spontaneous fission.  But if the latter is possible, then a meshing of these superdeformed nuclei may result in the nuclei themselves become superconducting. Part of the reason for the latter is due to superextreme accelerations and deaccelerations, which are in turn the key elements of The Fifth Element, Sonoluminescence, and potentially Hyperdimensional Physics as well.  

Surprise!  All of the physics is interrelated, and everything is connected.  But you’ve figured that out by now, right?  So, if you’re so smart, why aren’t you outside playing?  

Additional information on this subject -- in the event of really lousy weather outside -- is included in the Scientific Literature, and annotated description of the peer-reviewed, highly relevant journal articles on the fascinating subject of ORME and all of it s related and supporting physics and biology.  


Connective Physics         Wave-Particle Duality         Superstrings

Forward to:

Chaos Theory         Sonoluminescence         Mass         Cold Fusion



[1]  A. O. Macchiavelli, J. Burde, R. M. Diamond, C. W. Beausang, M.A. Deleplanque, R. J. McDonald, F. S. Stephens, and J. E. Draper, “Superdeformation in 104,105Pd, Physical Review C, Vol 38, NO. 2, August, 1988.

[2]  Walter Greiner and Aurel Sandulescu, “New Radioactivities,” Scientific American, March 1990, pages 58-67.

[3]  Michael A. Duncan and Dennis H. Rouvray, “Microclusters”, Scientific American, December 1989, pages 110-115.

[4] Shimizu, Y.R. and Broglia, R.A., “Quantum Size Effects in Rapidly Rotating Nuclei,” Physical Review C, Vol 41, No. 4, April, 1990, pg 1865-1867.

[5] Shimizu, Y.R., Vigezzi, E., and Broglia, R.A., “Inertias of Superdeformed Bands,” Physical Review C, Vol 41, No. 4, April, 1990, pg 1861-1863.  


Some additional Numbers to put things in perspective:  

Characteristics scales are:

            Atoms -- 10-10 meters and 10 eV (excitation energy)

                        (For electrons h/2pmc is approximately 4 X10-13 meters.)

            Nuclei -- 10-15 meters and 107 eV;

            Weak Scale -- 10-18 meters and 1011 eV;

            Planck Scale 10-35 meters and 1028 eV.  [Schwartz, 1987]

                        (where:  1 eV  =  1.602 X 10-19 J   and   1 GeV = 109 eV)

The Planck mass is:  Mp = [hc/2pG]1/2 » 2.2 x 10-5 g » 1.2 x 1019 GeV/c2  

The Gravitational Constant, G = 6.71 x 10-39 GeV-2.

OR in natural units: G = 6.67 X 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2. 

A quantum theory of gravity is essential at an energy scale of: E = G-1/2.

Kinetic Energy = (m - mo) c2  (where mo is the rest mass).


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