New -- December 15, 2003
ANNALS OF EARTH
© 1995, 2003 Dan Sewell Ward
Episode X -- The Wars of Gods and Men
c. 3,100-3,200 B.C.E. Something very important happened! What precisely was the motivator is not entirely clear. At least not at first glance. But consider the following, worldwide events:
c. 3,172 B.C.E. This date corresponds to a grid laid out connecting Tiahuanacu, Cuzco, Ollantaytambu, and Machu Picchu. Ollantaytambu might have been a stronghold (like Sacsahuaman or Baalbek in Lebanon), or a landing place. The grid was a precise 45o angle to the equator (just as in Mesopotamia and Baalbek). The Anunnaki first anchored a landing corridor on some outstanding geographical feature (e.g. Mount Ararat), then inclined the corridor at a precise 45o angle with the equator. In postdiluvial times, when the spaceport was in the Sinai peninsula and the landing place for airborne craft was at Baalbek, the grid followed the same pattern.
This may not be overwhelmingly important, but it does suggest that an alternate landing corridor was being instituted, possibly in case of unforeseen difficulties in Mesopotamia.
3,113 B.C.E. (August 13th): This is the enigmatic Day One of the Mayan Calendar’s “Long Count”. Not that the Mayans were around at this time, but they nevertheless dated their calendar from this point several thousands years before they were even known as Mayans! It’s not like the founding of Rome or some such, but rather the acknowledgement of some sort of linkage a people felt to events thousands of years in their past.
The Mayan calendar’s “Long Count”, is a strange beast, beginning at a very precise date and then ending on an equally precise date, the latter being December 21, 2012 A.D.. And like two other calendars used by the Mayans, the Long Count was based on a vigesimal (“times twenty”) mathematical system. Similar to Sumerian counting, 1 in a first column would be 1, twenty in the next column, and four hundred in the third.
Mathematical Digression: It is interesting to note that in order to obtain a integer quotient, the number 100 is divisible by only 7 numbers (2, 4, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50). On the other hand, 60 is divisible by 10 numbers (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 20, and 30. The Sumerian system is based therefore on alternate multiplications of 10 and 6. The Sumerian system also begins with the number 12,960,000, which when divided by 500 yields 25,920 (the number of years in the precession of the equinoxes (this precession moves every 72 years). A Sar (Nibiru’s orbit) is 3,600 years, and 1/12th of 25,920 (the precession of the equinoxes due to Earth’s rotation) is 2,160 years. The ratio of 3,600 to 2,160 is 10/6 -- which implies the reason for the sexagesimal alternating counting system, sort of a Nibiru/Earth ratio. Note also that 60 x 60 = 3,600, and that 3,600 x 3,600 = 12,960,000 (the original number in the system).
c. 3110 B.C.E. The beginning of chaotic times in Egypt, which would last some 350 years. Ten human rulers continued the previously semi-divine kingships. Of the nine human rulers who wore only the red cap of Lower Egypt, some names include: “Scorpion”, Ka, Zeser, Narmer, and Sma. Some scholars have referred to this period as “Dynasty O”. It is noteworthy that between the semi-divine rulers and Menes (c. 2,760 B.C.E.), the human kings ruled under the patronage of Horus, i.e., their epithets were Shamsu-Hor.
So what happened to the deposed Thoth? After the Second Pyramid War, he as Ningishzidda had been given the throne of Egypt as part of the peace treaty facilitated by Ninki. Where you might ask did our boy go? A good answer is that he became Quetzalcoatl, and began homesteading in MesoAmerica.
As a matter of fact, the appearance and identity of Quetzalcoatl (the patron god of Mexico and Central America) can be inferred by events in Sumer. When primacy of Sumer was transferred to Nannar/Sin -- the second son of Enlil (and the father of Inanna) -- Marduk (aka Ra) attempted to proclaim Babylon as the “Gateway of the Gods”. This was a not-so-subtle hint Marduk wanted Babylon to be in control of the space craft landing. Just as Chicago was Frank Sinatra’s “kind of town”, Babylon was Marduk’s. Unfortunately, when Marduk’s coup was frustrated, he returned to Egypt and deposed Thoth. He also deposed his younger brother, Dumuzi, who had been betrothed to Inanna. Dumuzi ended up being accidentally killed, and Thoth wound up looking for new stomping grounds.
Ultimately, the son upon whom Enki had bestowed the “secrets” of the calendar, mathematics and writing, Ningishzidda (the Egyptian Thoth), came to MesoAmerica under the alias of Quetzalcoatl. Note that Quetzalcoatl means “the plumed serpent” (obviously making the fellow an Enki archetype). Furthermore, the Ningishzidda’s name in Sumerian means “Lord of the Tree of Life”, indicating Enki had entrusted to his son some serious medical knowledge, including the secret of reviving the dead. It is noteworthy that Enki demonstrated this technique when he rescued his granddaughter, Inanna, from the dead (following her Descent into the Underworld), and Thoth had tried, but failed to do the same for Osiris. (Of course, Osiris had really gone to pieces!)
Parenthetically, we might note that Enki imparted the knowledge of astronomy to Marduk. But in one Babylonian text, Enki is quoted as becoming exasperated at Marduk, who felt that Enki had not taught him enough. Marduk, in particular, wanted to learn the secret of reviving the dead. Enki, apparently, was wise enough to draw the line on that one. Marduk, after all, was rapidly becoming the earliest example of a loose cannon rolling about the decks.
Note also that the newly established landing corridor in South America makes sense if there is terrible trouble in River City (i.e. the Sinai), Marduk running about doing his rendition of a Bolshevik Revolutionary, chaos in Egypt, Republicans in trouble in New Hampshire, and so forth. In particular it was time to consider some alternate routes to the heavens.
But this region was under the auspices of Ishkur (known as Adad to the Hittites), the third son of Enlil. In effect Ishkur took a page from Ningishzidda’s book and became the South American patron god, Viracocha. This would be the same god who at the Titikalla, the sacred rock of Lake Titicaca, would give the divine wand to Manco Capac with which he to found Cuzco. One would have to believe the divine wand allowed Manco to fix the precise 45o angle between Tiahuanacu and Cuzco.
The latter also ties in with our continuing Saga of Tin and Bronze. The location of those lands where tin is found is near the currently known locations of ancient tin mines, i.e., Cornwall in Southeastern England (southeast of Stonehenge!) and Lake Titicaca (Kalasasaya!) in Bolivia.
In effect, Marduk/Ra tried the Babylon gambit, failed, returned to Egypt, and initiated a 350 year period of chaos. This chaos sent Thoth/Quetzalcoatl to Mexico and Central America where he initiated the Mayan calendar, and quite probably brought over Negroid workers to seed the Olmecs -- the latter known for their Negroid features and for the fact they were roundly hated by subsequent peoples (the latter which might have been Enlil-inspired counter-revolutionaries). Meanwhile, Ishkur/Adad/Viracocha sets up a landing corridor in South America based around the mines of Lake Titicaca, and the pivotal points of Cuzco, Ollantaytambu and Machu Picchu -- which are determined by the divine wand provided by Viracocha to Manco Capac, the first Inca.
At about the same time, a sun temple was built at Heliopolis (in Egypt). It’s noteworthy in that it is aligned with the summer and winter solstices -- the earliest known example.
c. 3,080 B.C.E. Probable date for the biblical Reu, son of Peleg, to beget Serug. Keep in mind, that with respect to Peleg, “it was in his days that the earth was divided.” Peleg’s brother, Joktan, was known for the quote: “And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest from Sephar, a mount of the east.”
c. 3,000 or 3,100 B.C.E. The Indus Valley Civilization (“The Third Region”) arrived on the scene. The Indus Valley was, according to the Sumerian texts, the balewick of Inanna -- who eventually became known as the goddess, Kali. The civilization was centered at Mohenjo Dara in the south and Harappa in the north, and became known as, among other things, the Harappan Civilization. This civilization was to thrive for many centuries, but would be totally gone -- its cities in ruins and its peoples dispersed -- by the fifteenth century B.C. More on this later, when Moses does his gig in Egypt.
For the present, it’s curious that the first buildings at Mohenjo-Dara (a huge granary and a fort tower) were reinforced with timbers -- a construction method totally unsuitable to the Indus climate. This method, however was soon abandoned, and all subsequent construction avoided timber reinforcing. The conclusion is that the first builders were foreigners to the Indus Valley.
In addition, the dominant deity was a goddess, usually naked and bare-chested or with rows of beads and necklaces as her sole covering. These were the same as well known depictions of Inanna, found in abundance in Mesopotamia and throughout the Near East. Apparently, the chaos in the Middle East resulted in one more move to other parts of the planet -- in this case under Inanna’s rule.
c. 3,000 B.C.E. The approximate date when Etana the shepherd, King of Kish, “stabilized all the lands”. Etana was, according to the Sumerian king list, the thirteenth ruler of the city, which in 3,760 B.C.E. had been granted the first kingship on earth. Other than that, we don’t know a lot about him.
At about the same time, however, Utu (aka Shamash, twin brother of Inanna) got together with a human female and had a demi-god son, named Meskiaggaseir. The latter became a high priest and king, thus represented the beginning of kingship at Uruk (the biblical Erech). Meskiaggaseir was identified in the Sumerian King Lists as the “son of the Sun God” (i.e. Utu), and was known to have “entered the sea, ascended the mountain” -- whatever that means! His son was Enmerkar.
c. 2,900 B.C.E. The best estimate as to the Beginning of the Age of Aries.
At the same time, the flowering of the first kingship at Uruk occurred with Enmerkar (“who built Uruk”), transforming it from the nominal abode of an absentee god (Anu) to a major urban center of a reigning deity in residence. Enmerkar achieved this by persuading Inanna to choose Uruk as her principal seat of power and by embellishing for her the Eanna (“House of Anu”) temple. In the Sumerian text, known by scholars as Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Aratta is described as the capital of a land situated beyond mountain ranges and beyond Anshan (i.e. southeastern Iran). In other words, Aratta is Arappa or Harappa, Inanna’s home away from home in India. Inanna, theoretically, would then become a commuting goddess, spending time in both Uruk and Harappa.
Furthermore, we know Enmerkar demanded of Aratta that it contribute “precious stones, bronze, lead, and slabs of lapis lazuli”, the latter a semi-precious stone almost exclusively identified with the goddess, Inanna. All of the above was, of course, slated for the Eanna temple, and worthy of the goddess. So far, so good.
But then, Enmerkar got considerably more belligerent, demanding the Lord of Aratta be obedient to Enmerkar. To make his threats, he really laid on Aratta the “first war of nerves”, lauding his powers to bring desolation upon the Indian city. The ruler of Aratta, however, recalled the confusion of languages in the aftermath of the Tower of Babel, and claimed he could not understand the message from Enmerkar.
Whereupon Enmerkar sent another message -- this time in the language of Aratta (a feat made possible with the help of Nidaba, the Goddess of Writing). Enmerkar even used the a serious drought in Aratta to claim that even Inanna wanted Aratta to come “under the protecting shade of Uruk.” Interestingly, while the Lord of Aratta was reading the message, a great storm came up and suddenly broke the drought. Very quickly, “white-walled Aratta” became a land of abundant grains, and its Lord decided Inanna had not handed Aratta over to Uruk after all! On the contrary, one might have to suppose Inanna, if she were truly into god-like powers of controlling the weather, rather preferred Aratta to remain independent. Such an idea would be just like her.
It is worth digressing momentarily to consider in more detail this Inanna -- Goddess of Heaven and Earth, Goddess of Love, Goddess of War, Lady of Myriad Offices, and so forth -- and how she fits into the present scope of things.
Much of Inanna’s story begins circa 3800 B.C.E., when the city of Uruk was built for the express purpose of providing a residence for Anu whenever “the king of the gods” happened to visit the earth on a state visit. Included with the city was a temple for his worship. Kingship of Sumer, however, was destined for Kish, the city chosen by Enlil. Uruk was just a summer cottage, so to speak.
Anu, however, being the epitome of the dirty, very old man, had the hots for his great granddaughter, Inanna. Accordingly, he was more than happy to share his beloved city of Uruk with Inanna. He was also, presumably, not disinclined to share his bed away from home with her as well. Thus when Enmerkar proposed to embellish the Eanna temple with all the goodies of which Inanna was so fond, it was a hop, step and a jump for Inanna to leap on the situation. Thus Enmerkar, with the acquiescence of Anu made Anu’s abode in Uruk, Inanna’s abode as well.
This arrangement also appealed to Inanna, who had no compunction about sleeping with her great grandfather (who theoretically was still in something resembling his prime). This was the way to power, and Inanna was never adverse to accumulating power. There was also the fact the Indus Valley was something of the hinterland, far removed from the hotbed of civilizations, Sumeria. Uruk, on the other hand, put Inanna where the action was. And in her quest to become the city’s true goddess, beloved of her Urukite subjects, Inanna made it her business to gain power for Uruk.
One so-called myth, the story of Inanna and the God of Wisdom, describes Inanna’s abilities to gather knowledge (and therefore, power) in some detail. The myth begins by Inanna delighting in her womanhood and wishing to test its powers. With youthful audacity, she sets out for Eridu, the residence of Enki, the God of Wisdom, to “bless” her maternal grandfather. Enki welcomes her with a feast, and the two begin to drink the wine. As the evening proceeds, Enki becomes ever more generous and Inanna ever more intentional. Enki offers Inanna the treasures of his kingdom, the attributes of civilization, what the Sumerians called The Me. The Me include priesthood and the rituals involved in serving the gods, the king, and the temple (the “attributes of civilization” which the gods could make available to the people through the institution of the temple and its servants), as well as those attributes most related to humanity’s concerns: political power, the secure dwelling place, crafts, husbandry, emotions, the family, counseling, and decision-making. The last Me turned out to be critical, for at the moment Inanna received it from Enki, her eagerness turned from bravado to true decision. Deciding she wanted to keep the Me, she hastily and prudently departed.
In her “Boat of Heaven”, Inanna returned to her city of Uruk to share her new found wealth with her people. Enki made some pretense at attempting to recover the Me from Inanna before she reached Uruk, but his attempts were such as to make one suspect he was merely making a show for the benefit of Enlil, who would have roundly condemned such actions. Enki was again on the side of Man, while Enlil was in his customary role as the adversary. Moreover, as God of Wisdom, Enki knew that the powers of knowledge needed to be shared; as King of Eridu, he knew that the best rule was the self-sufficiency of its citizens, and as Father, he knew the best way to raise his children was by encouraging initiative and independence.
In another story, Inanna contended with Marduk, except in this case in the guise of Isis vying with Ra in Egypt. The story comes from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, and tells of the time when Isis fashioned a sacred serpent in the form of a spear and laid it in ambush for an old, senile Ra. The great god was bit, and Ra found himself in immense pain. Isis then manipulated the old man in pain, promising him relief when she knew his name. Ra granted that his name would pass unto Isis and promptly “hid himself from the gods, his place in the boat of millions of years now empty.” The latter perhaps refers literally to the Anunnaki’s spacecraft, or figuratively to the ruling council. In any case, the story ends with “Isis, the great goddess, the queen of the gods, who knew Ra by his own name.”
But of all the stories of Inanna, perhaps the most profound is her Descent into the Underworld. But this story we will leave as a side bar for the truly adventurous.
Meanwhile, Kingship in Sumer was eventually transferred from Kish to Uruk. Inanna had brought home the bacon for her beloved subjects. And Aratta (Harappa) continued to prosper.
c. 2,800 B.C.E. The approximate date for Stonehenge I, located in the southern parts of England on the Salisbury Plain in modern day Wiltshire. While fairly simple compared to the later Stonehenges, Stonehenge I may be thought of as signifying the Neolithic Age arriving in England. It is said Enki (aka Oannes) built Stonehenge. Why? Perhaps because the southwestern portion of England was rich in tin, a fact which Enki may have kept secret for several hundred years. (Stonehenge is, for example, somewhat removed from the tin producing regions of Cornwall.) The saga of tin and bronze continues! (See entries on 2,600 and 2,200 B.C.E.) Also note some astounding attributes of Stonehenge in A Book of Coincidence.
c. 2,760 B.C.E. A human, Menes, united Upper and Lower Egypt, establishing his capital at Memphis. The 350 years of chaos in Egypt had come to an end and the First Dynasty of Ancient Egypt had its Inaugural Ball! Seven or eight kings would follow Menes on the throne of a unified Egypt. Temples at Saqqarah and Abydos were also built, allegedly, during this time.
Traditionally, Egyptian Chronology ascribes a date of 3,100 B.C.E. as the beginning of the First Dynasty. This leads to more contradictions with other histories than is imaginable. Virtually nothing correlates in terms of dates with other cultures. This issue will be taken up in more detail on two other occasions (roughly 1450 B.C.E. and 950 B.C.E). For the present, note the 3,100 date as being a time when virtually everyone was running for the sidelines, i.e. Viracocha setting up shop in South America (Tiahuanacu, Cuzco, Machu Picchu, etcetera), Quetzalcoatl in Mexico and Central America, Kali in the Indus Valley, and even possibly, Enki in Cornwall and Stonehenge. There truly was 350 years of Chaos in Egypt (not to mention Sumer and Mesopotamia) -- and it was this that was the motivator for beginning the other civilizations!
c. 2,700 B.C.E. Enmerkar of Uruk’s line spawned “(the god) Lugalbanda, the Shepherd”, followed by “(the god) Dumuzi, the Fisherman” (also known to have been a lover of Inanna), and finally Gilgamesh, Lord of Kullab. The Epic of Gilgamesh is perhaps the best known of the Sumerian texts. It is the story of a man who was two-thirds god and one-third man, searching for eternal life and having all manner of adventures in the interim. These included finding a best friend in a wild beast of a man named Enkidu (who later took the rap for Gilgamesh and ended up spending the rest of his life working in the mines). Gilgamesh also rejected the advances of Inanna. The latter was extremely noteworthy, and firmly established Gilgamesh as the patriarchy’s golden boy. But keep in mind who gets the last laugh! For one thing, guess who survived the longest? Inanna? Right on!
c. 2,650 B.C.E. According to Zecharia Sitchin, Sumer’s capital had begun to shift about among the other cities of Sumer. Contemporaneous with Gilgamesh of Uruk had been Enmenunna of Kish (referred to as Kish II) and Mesannipadda of Ur. After this triple threat of kings with moxy had passed from the scene, everything quickly went from bad to worse.
c. 2,630 B.C.E. The biblical Serug beget Nahor. Neither did beans, or at least we know next to nothing about them other than they filled in the space between Reu and Terah. Their real failure may have been in their not hiring publicists or a public relations firm. Or even an biographer.
c. 2,610 B.C.E. The alleged date, according to one of the author’s children, when their “Daddy was born”. This information was conveyed on one of their daddy’s wall charts of the dates of the Sumerian Civilization, by a child neatly writing (in a different colored pen) on the charts. Amusing.
c. 2,600 B.C.E. The great surge into the Bronze Age hit a snag. Dwindling supplies of tin was evidenced by the lowering of the percentage of tin in bronze -- down to as little as 2%. The Early Bronze Age ends with something of a whimper. But the saga of tin and bronze will continue (see 2,200 B.C.E.).
Meanwhile! Back at the Titicaca Ranch! Five Hundred Years After Point Zero, the Creator God, Viracocha, the Great God of Heaven who had come to Earth in great antiquity, chose the Andes as his creative arena. According to one Inca legend, the first monarch, Manco Capac, exited from Lake Titicaca through a subterranean passage. Manco was the son of the Sun and was given by the Sun a golden wand with which to find Cuzco. When his mother went into labor, the world was in darkness. When Manco was born, there was light and trumpets sounded, and the god Pachacamac declared that “the beautiful day of Manco Capac had dawned.” Oh yeah, right.
Another version claims the true ancestors of the Incas were immigrants from somewhere else who had arrived in Peru by sea. A king called Atua had arrived in the most ancient times on the Peruvian coast with two hundred men and women and disembarked at Rimac. From there they went to Ica, and thence to Lake Titicaca -- the place revered as the site of where the Sons of the Sun governed the Earth. When he came of age, Atua’s son, Manco Capac, sent his followers in two directions to find the legendary Sons of the Sun. Manco himself wandered many days until he came to a place that had a sacred cave. The cave was artificially hewed out and was adorned with gold and silver. Manco left the sacred cave and went to a window called Capac Toco, meaning “Royal Window”. As he came out, Manco was dressed in the golden garments he had obtained in the cave; and by putting on those garments, he was invested with the kingship of Peru.
A third version tells of four Ayar brothers and their four sister who were sent from Tiahuanacu (on the shores of Lake Titicaca) to find a city which was to be called Cuzco. As Children of the Sun who had been created and instructed at Lake Titicaca by Viracocha, they were given a golden object with which to complete their task. One of the brothers, Pirua Manco, had a sister who bore him a son, Manco Capac. Manco was the first Inca, and the builder of the Temple to the Great God, Viracocha.
Subsequently, Manco established a line of sixty-two kings who ruled at Cuzco -- 16 semi-divine rulers (sons of the Sun God -- of which Manco was the first), and 46 priest kings.
All of these versions may be interwoven and connected. Ishkur/Viracocha may indeed have arrived on Earth in ancient times and then chosen the Andes for his “creative arena”. He may then have brought two hundred men and women by sailing vessel, landed them on the Peruvian coast, led them to Lake Titicaca, found sources of gold (and possibly later tin), and then sent Manco Capac with a golden surveying instrument to found Cuzco, and thus align the landing corridor at a precise 45o angle with the equator. This would allow gold from the Andes to be taken directly to the Igigi orbiting in their space station above the earth. This was perhaps an early example of eliminating the middle man, in this case, the Mesopotamian landing corridor and the continuing unrest in unruly Egypt, Sumer and Mesopotamia. In addition, Ishkur might have just been acting the role of entrepreneur.
If this seems a bit far-fetched, consider the fact that depictions of a great hero wrestling with and defeating two lions with bare hands, are found in Sumeria -- attributed to Gilgamesh (c. 2,700 B.C.E.) -- as well as Aija and Callejon de Huaylus in the northern Andes. The latter are important in that there are no lions in South America! In fact if the Naymlap tales are correct, Indo-Europeans may have crossed the Pacific and settled on the peninsula of Santa Elena (now Ecuador). These settlements were before two waves of African “giants” and Mediterranean Bearded Ones. Archaeological excavations have confirmed early settlements there, beginning in what is called the Valdivian Phase. The idea the ancient Middle Easterners and the most ancient Americans were not on a first name basis becomes ludicrous in the extreme as mounds of evidence accumulate connecting the two cultures.
c. 2,550 B.C.E. Beginning of the Second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Pharaohs included Peribsen, Khasekhem, Khasekhemui and seven others. Of particular note is the reference to the god Khem (aka Khnemu) who is considered one of the oldest divinities of Egypt, and who worked with Ptah (Enki) in carrying out the work of creation envisioned by Thoth (Ningishzidda). Khem’s connection with the primeval water (Enki being the God of Waters) caused him to be regarded as the chief god of the inundation and lord of the cataracts at Elephantine. As the Lord of Elephantine, Khem was “the builder of men, the maker of gods, and the father from the beginning.” One might suspect Khem was another Anunnaki, not previously identified among the Mesopotamian gods, but who had been involved in predicting the Flood/Deluge, and then in cleaning up the mess in Egypt in the aftermath. For our purposes, it is extremely important to note two things: Khem was Lord of Elephantine, and Alchemy means “the art of Khem”! Keep these two critically important clues on hand for later!
c. 2,500 B.C.E. The Kurgan Invasions moved from Southeast Europe into Scandinavia, the British Isles and other parts of Northern Europe, bringing their message of patriarchal paradise to the disadvantaged, down-trodden, but otherwise perfectly happy goddess-worshipers. These were not good days to die.
c. 2,400 B.C.E. Meanwhile, back in Sumeria, Enlil was again becoming disgusted with mankind. After Gilgamesh of Uruk, Enmenunna of Kish, and Mesannipadda of Ur had passed from the scene around 2,600 B.C. the kingship in Sumer began making the rounds, from Uruk to Ur to Awan, back to Kish, to Hamazi, back to Uruk and Ur, to Adab and Mari, back to Kish, to Aksak and again to Kish, and finally once more to Uruk. In the course of no more than 220 years, there were three additional dynasties at Kish, three at Uruk, two at Ur, and single ones in five other cities. To describe the period as volatile is to put it mildly. Cities had begun to wage war with each other over water rights -- the inevitable consequence of drier weather conditions and larger populations. But more importantly, mankind had begun to wage its own wars! Sort of like the “terrible twos” when a child makes the first concerted effort to establish his or her independence. "Hey, mommy, let's go to war! I wanna bomb Iraq!:
However, such a resort to arms in order to settle local disputes, commonplace as they might have been, nevertheless, increasingly involved the cities’ patron-gods. Oops. This was not good. Enlil, Ninurta and others did make the vain attempt to establish, for the fourth time, a kingship at Kish, but nothing seemed to work out. Based on their names, this latest crop of rulers had apparently swore fealty to Ninurta and his spouse, Ishkur (Shamash), Inanna (Ishtar), Nannar (Sin), and Pinocchio. The final insult to the Kingship of Kish was a nonentity, a human named “Nannia, a stone cutter”, and who managed a reign of a brief seven years (probably while the gods were taking a nap).
[In the latter regard, if the Anunnaki live for 500,000 years (plausible if we are to believe the Sumerian texts), and a man lives, oh say, 83 years; then this represents a multiple of 6000. Therefore, if we sleep for 8 hours at a time, an Anunnaki might slumber for 5.5 years! One could have slept, for example, through World War II. This might explain why the gods did not seem to have a day-to-day, hands-on style of governing the human masses!]
In any case, the circumstances in Mesopotamia were unsettled to say the least! What was needed was a strong and firm leader. Inanna, thinking to bring the kingship back to Uruk, found just the man to do the work: one Lugalzagesi, who managed to retain the favor of the gods for twenty-five years! Unfortunately, Lugalzagesi decided to eliminate Uruk’s most obvious rival by attacking Kish and attempting to assure her permanent desolation. In the process he raised Enlil’s ire. Bad mistake.
Clearly Lugalzagesi had missed the point. The idea was to cease the warfare among the cities. A firm leader was needed, someone who could perform the role of king and sole intermediary between the gods and the people in all matters mundane. But not someone trying to foist one city upon another. Fortunately, once again Inanna rose to the occasion, and found the man to do the job right.
c. 2,371 B.C.E. He was a cup-bearer to the king of Kish, when Inanna found him. And she would make him the builder of the first true empire. His name was Sharru-kin (“Righteous Ruler”). Known to modern textbooks as Sargon I or Sargon the Great, he built a brand-new capital not far from Babylon and named it Agade (“United”). We know it as Akkad, from which stems the term Akkadian in the first Semitic language. Sargon began his story in his own words:
Now here's a boy who understands public relations and photo ops -- not to mention the effectiveness of a rags to Moses bibliography on the average voter.
Sargon not only fulfilled all of the expectations of Enlil and the others for effective Kingship, but he also fulfilled all of Inanna’s expectations for her bedroom. In the process, her status was elevated among the gods, and she truly became a force to be reckoned with. In this regard, Sargon provided great temples for Inanna’s worship in Agade, Uruk, Nippur, Ur, Girsu, Adab, Kish, Der, Akshak, Umma, and Denver. And yet, clearly, he could not have ruled Akkad and Sumer without the consent and blessing of Anu and Enlil. Furthermore, his conquests were, at first, limited to the domains of Nannar/Sin and his children (Utu and Inanna), and even at their peak kept well within the Enlilite territories. It was clear, for example, that Egypt and Africa were out of bounds in terms of conquest, and Sargon carefully limited himself to peaceful trading relations with Egypt, etc.
c. 2,346 B.C.E. Thus it was during Sargon’s reign in Mesopotamia, that the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt arrived on the scene, and initiated The Old Kingdom of Egypt. Of the five kings, the most noteworthy name was Zoser. Interestingly, the builder of his temple was equally famous. His name was Imhotep and he is believed to have been Thoth, also known as Ningishzidda (“Lord of the Artifact of Life”). The evidence suggests Thoth had also become the commuting god, spending his time between playing the parts of Quetzalcoatl in Central America, Thoth in Egypt, and Ningishzidda in Sumeria.
It was in this time that sacred geometry appears to have been born -- or at least being imparted to mankind. Thoth/Ningishzida, being the consummate mathematician, likely shared his knowledge with the Egyptians. Evidence for this includes the fact of the number 2520 being carved on an Egyptian pyramid as if it were an important number. Well it is! It turns out that 2520 is the smallest number which can be divided by all the numbers from 1 to 9 to yield an integer quotient. No doubt you’re impressed!
In addition, sacred geometry may be said to include something called “The Golden Section”. Usually represented by the Greek letter phi, The Golden Section is what the Greeks called a “perfect and pleasing ratio” in architecture. The Golden Section includes the “Golden Number,” 1.618, as well as the “Divine Number,” 0.618. These numbers are considered in great detail in Sacred Mathematics, and include such charmers as Fibonacci Numbers, Transcendental Numbers, and Golden Spirals.
Fascinating stuff, eh what? Frankly, I find it charming. But if you’re still not convinced, consider the fact that 0.618 and 1.618 play a major role in predicting stock market trends, and the use of these numbers in Elliott Wave Theory has been exceptionally successful in making money on the market. And it is still being used to great advantage. Makes you wonder, doesn’t it!
c. 2,316 B.C.E. Sargon the Great blows it! After dutifully staying out of those areas controlled by Ninurta and the city claimed by Marduk, Sargon, “in his old age”, made a mistake: He took away the hallowed soil from the foundation of Babylon (“Gateway of the Gods”) and built upon the soil another Babylon located beside the city of Agade. Marduk totally lost it, and began destroying his people by hunger. Eventually Sargon was spending all of his time crushing one revolt after another; until discredited and afflicted, he died.
If this seems a bit far-fetched, consider the report in Science [Volume 261, 20 August 1993], in which seven authors argued the position that circa 2200 B.C.E. the Akkadian Civilization suffered “a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, inducing a considerable degradation of land-use conditions.” The authors also claim that “synchronous collapse in adjacent regions suggests that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive.” The dating may be off, and Marduk may be claiming powers beyond his actual ability, but the end of the Akkadian empire does have common elements between the ancient texts and modern science.
Marduk also took the opportunity to return to Babylon, threatening another war of the gods. The situation was tense, until Marduk’s brother, Nergal, journeyed from South Africa to Babylon and persuaded Marduk to leave Mesopotamia. It was a temporary respite, but not a permanent settlement.
c. 2,291 B.C.E. Sargon’s grandson, Naram-Sin (“whom the god Sin loves”, and who loaned him his “weapon of the god” from time to time) stepped in to continue the tradition begun by his grandfather. Only the youngster quickly overstepped his bounds as well. [It must run in the family.] Penetrating into the Sinai peninsula and invading Egypt, Naram-Sin quickly found himself in deep do-do. Apparently, “the goddess Inanna changed her plan and the gods gave their blessings to” others. Naram-Sin thus left on his own, promptly lost hundreds of thousands of troops, and finally appealed to Enki to overrule Inanna. A promised peace followed and lasted for nearly three centuries. Ur, Nippur, Lagash, Isin, and Larsa began to flourish, with Ur becoming the center of an empire encompassing the whole of the ancient Near East.
c. 2,273 B.C.E. The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt began. The timing is interesting in that the Third Dynasty may have ended at about the time Naram-Sin was making incursions into Egypt. In any case, the Dynasty is noted for its pharaohs: Sneferu, Khufu, Rededef, Khafre (Chephren), Baufre, Mycerinus, Shepseskaf, and Dedefptah. Okay, a few of the pharaohs are recognizable names. This is because this is supposedly the time of the building of the pyramids at Giza as burial tombs for the big three. This idea of the Great Pyramids of Giza being tombs is, of course, utter nonsense. Some Egyptian history is really fouled up!
c. 2,255 B.C.E. Inanna attempted to usurp power in Mesopotamia. Unfortunately, Naram-Sin defiled Nippur (what had become the holiest of holy cities), and it was then Inanna “changed her mind”. The Great Anunnaki, in retaliation, obliterated Agade, but Inanna escaped. Sumer and Akkad were occupied by foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta. Inanna, on the other hand, apparently went underground, so to speak. This may be the timing on her most famous story, Inanna’s Descent into the Underworld.
The Descent tells of Inanna leaving the temples in her seven cities (those provided by Sargon), and journeying into the underworld. In the process she loses all the attributes of her queendom in seven stages (initiating the concept of the Dance of the Seven Veils), and upon arriving in the Underworld naked and powerless, is judged, condemned, executed and her corpse hung from a nail on the wall.
The story also relates that Inanna, with some foresight, had left her faithful servant, Ninshubur (aka Lilith), to go for help if she failed to return within three days. After the prescribed waiting period, Ninshubur faithfully went about requesting intervention and assistance to Inanna’s father and grandfather, Nannar and Enlil, but to no avail as they would not help, figuring Inanna had gotten what she deserved. But then when Ninshubur approached Inanna’s maternal grandfather, Enki, the God of Wisdom rose to the occasion and rescued Inanna, restoring her life, and allowing her to return to the world of the living.
The story is a tour-de-force when it comes to psychological analogies and metaphors. Truly it is one of the prime examples of “Metaphors Be With You.” It also includes references which are today used in secret societies such as Freemasonry, such as at the onset of undergoing the initiation into the mysteries, one notifies the “gatekeeper” that “I am (name), on my way to the east.” A good reference is: Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth, Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer, Diane Wolkstein, Samuel Noah Kramer, Harper & Row, New York, 1983.
c. 2,220 B.C.E. The Sumerian civilization rose to new heights under the enlightened rulers of Lagash. Thoth helped one of the kings, Gudea, to build a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta. It was this sort of thing which kept Ningishzida on the friendly side of Ninurta and the Enlil factions. It also helped preserve the peace, in what was always a volatile state of affairs.
This was also the time of an abrupt change initiating the Middle Bronze Age. In effect, it was the resumption of an adequate supply of tin. Sitchin thinks the sudden new source was Lake Titicaca. It is conceivable the Incas were mining gold there at an early time, and then added tin to their exports at this time. Certainly to this day, Bolivia is a major source of the world’s tin. The area southeast of La Paz and east of Lake Poopo (love that name!) shows archeological evidence of recovered and melted tin, along with bronze of 88% copper, similar to ancient bronzes of Europe and the Near East. The sites appeared to be “from extremely ancient periods”, some of the earliest examples of bronze artifacts in South America appearing to have been based on Old World shapes and Old World technologies!
It is also worth noting that the three major civilizations of the Old World (Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley) arose in fertile river valleys. But Tiahuanacu and Bolivia don’t fit this pattern, and are, in fact, located in a very inhospitable, non-agriculture based place. At the same time, however, most of the Inca gold was found between Lake Titicaca and Cuzco. And of course, this is where the tin was.
When tin supplies in the Near East improved so abruptly, an enigmatic people appeared on the Near Eastern scene as well. Their neighbors called then Cassites (“Korsseans” to the later Greeks). There is no scholarly explanation for this name, but it may derive from casserite -- the ore from which tin is extracted. Curiously, at about the same time, Silbury Hill in England was constructed in the region of England known as Cornwall -- the only other major place in the world where tin ore was found it its original lodes. It’s a small world, and was such even in ancient times!
c. 2,193 B.C.E. Nahor beget Terah, Abraham’s father, who was born in Nippur into a family of royal priests. This is our first hint that the grand patriarch Abraham was not a simple sheepherder. And there is no truth at all to the rumor that Abraham was into animal husbandry!
c. 2,154 B.C.E. The Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt begins. Nine pharaohs with unpronounceable names, arrived on the scene, along with battles with Libyans and expeditions to Punt and Nubia.
c. 2,141 B.C.E. (or 2130 -- depending upon the dating of King Solomon) Abram (Abraham) is born in Nippur to his father, Terah. This date is in dispute (as are most of the dates in these annals). But a reasonable number of so-called scholars consider this a reasonable approximation. And based on the crazy parties planned for the next couple of centuries, the date works as well as any. The thing to remember, however, is that Abram was not exactly the itinerant sheepherder he’s made out to be. He was quite literally born into the Nippurian aristocracy.
c. 2,131 B.C.E. Enlil entrusted the Lands of Shem (Sumer) to Nannar/Sin, Enlil’s second son. This may be a significant date, in that Enlil may be in the process of relinquishing his personal control of Earth in favor of his sons, pretty much as Enki had done for Marduk, Ningishzida, Nergal and the others.
At the same time, Ur is declared the capital of the new empire. Ur-Nammu is enthroned as king in Ur, and named Protector of Nippur -- the latter city being now the most sacred of all of the cities of Mesopotamia. A Nippurian priest, Terah, comes to Ur to act as liaison with its royal court. Terah brings his family, which, of course, includes Abram. Suddenly we have Abram hailing from Ur of the Chaldees.
c. 2,114 B.C.E. Ur-Nammu dies in battle. The people consider his untimely death to be a betrayal by Anu and Enlil. Terah assumes the better part of valor and departs Ur with his family for Haran in the northernmost portion of the Fertile Crescent.
c. 2,113 B. C. E. Shulgi ascended the throne after the death of Ur-Nammu, and began to strengthen imperial ties. As the empire thrived, Shulgi became Inanna’s lover. [Hey! It's part of the job description!] Shulgi also granted Larsa to the Elamites in exchange for their serving as his Foreign Legion. The Elamites were from the region due east of Sumer, in the mountains of what is now Iran, just above the head of the Persian Gulf. Effectively raised in the harder conditions of the mountains, the Elamites were rough, tough and ready to fight. As a Foreign Legion, they were to become critically important in the next seventy years or so.
c. 2,100 B.C.E. Stonehenge II constructed, to be followed by Stonehenge III (and IIIb) in the year 2,000.
c. 2,073 B.C.E. Our old friend, Marduk, returned to the scene and began a lot of saber rattling. At first, he was making noises from his old base in Egypt. And while the Egyptians were less than impressed, far away in Mesopotamia Marduk seemed much more dangerous. Even closer to home, the Canaanite cities begin to show unrest, particularly the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. On Nannar’s orders, Shulgi then sent his Elamite troops to suppress the unrest and bring Sodom and Gomorrah back into line. As the Elamites reached the gateway to the Sinai Peninsula and spaceport, things got very tense!
c. 2,066 B.C.E. Shulgi’s death was ordered by Anu and Enlil. Apparently, the Elamites were a bit too close to the Sinai. Marduk then used the time to move to the land of the Hittites in modern day Turkey. This placed him in a flanking movement, and put Haran in harm’s way should Marduk decide to march on Babylon (which was virtually a lead pipe cinch). At this point, (age 75 -- thus accounting for the date of his birth above) Abram was ordered to leave Haran for southern Canaan. Terah had died in Haran at the age of 205, and Abram was now the man in charge.
Abram was promised the destiny of spawning a great nation in exchange for his doing the Lord’s bidding, and we all know how much fun spawning can be. And to spawn a great nation! Wow! Talk about motivation! This is the kind of thing to really get a man’s juices flowing! (Pardon the pun.) Still, one has to wonder what the “Lord” (i.e. Enlil and/or Ninurta) had in mind. Marduk was threatening from the northwest to rush down upon Babylon. On the other hand, the Elamites were entirely too close to the Sinai and the all important Spaceport. Of the two, the latter was probably of more concern, and thus Abram was actually being sent to where the action was -- or at least, threatened to be. Instead of getting him out of harm's way, Enlil was sending Abram and his "host" into the potentially more critical fighting area. Why Abram?
For starters, one might ask exactly who were “the souls that they had gotten in Haran”. The answer interestingly enough is hinted at in Genesis 14:14:
Tradition seems to think of Abram as the kindly old sheepherder, tending his flocks and trying to raise a family. But this is a sheepherder who just happened to have three hundred and eighteen trained servants, and the weapons with which to arm them!? Folks, this is not the standard equipment for herding a bunch of sheep. Conceivably, sheep might have been part of the baggage, for food and possibly recreational activities, but sheepherding does not generally require 318 armed and trained men. Nor for that matter do many sheepherders from Haran waltz down to Egypt and visit the Pharaoh -- even have the Pharaoh lust after the sheepherder’s wife, was done in the case of Sarai, Abram's wife.
Abram was, in reality, the commander of an elite corps of cavalrymen, who went to Egypt, stayed five years, and raised troops. When he reentered Canaan, “Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold.” [Genesis 13:2] One might suspect the wealth Abram had suddenly accumulated was perhaps for the purpose of acquiring additional reinforcements -- paid mercenaries to do the bidding of the “Lord God.”
Unfortunately, the army needed to be fed, and this became a problem of being able to live off the land. Accordingly, Lot took a contingent of troops and headed east toward Sodom, where “the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly.” [Genesis 13: 13] All indications are that an imminent battle was brewing.
Meanwhile, Amar-Sin (the biblical “Amraphel”) had ascended the throne of Ur.
c. 2,060 B.C.E. The Canaanite Kings of Sodom and Gomorrah switched their allegiance to “other gods”. The “other gods” were, of course, Marduk. In response, Amar-Sin formed a coalition of Kings of the East, and launched a military expedition to Canaan and the Sinai. The leader of the expeditionary force was the Elamite king Khedorla’omer. Abram (Abraham) moved his troops to block any possible advance toward the gateway of the Spaceport. Thus was set the stage for the War of the Kings.
About this time, Lot's military contingent was overrun. When Abram, through a “confederate”, learned of Lot’s fate, he made like the Seventh Calvary and rescued Lot “and his goods, and the women also, and the people”. Of course, this required a fair amount of smoting and pursuing, but Abram was up to the task. He then received his accolades with the king of Sodom greeting him upon his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and from Melchizedek king of Salem throwing a party for him of bread and wine. Abram then did the noble thing, refusing all manner of wealth (other than expenses, and those monies for his allies who were to be allowed to “take their portion”). Clever commander, this Abram.
Meanwhile, the Lord was so pleased, he made a covenant with Abram giving him the land “from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates.” This included, we are led to believe, the land belonging to the: Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, Jubusites, and just about every other -ite in the region! Too bad for them.
Parenthetically, we might note the first appearance on our stage of Melchizedek, king of Salem; who was also “the priest of the most high God.” Salem, is of course, Jeru-Salem; while Melchizedek means, according to The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered, the “King of Righteousness”. Keep this little reference on one of the back burners of your mind, as we will again encounter Melchizedek!
Oh, by the way. Despite Abram’s victory in his first big battle, the dust had not yet begun to settle. A whole flock of kings were out there, vowing that they “had not yet begun to fight!”
c. 2,058 B.C.E. Abram enjoyed a little R&R, and Hagar bore him a son, Ishmael.
c. 2,053 B.C.E. Shu-Sin replaced Amar-Sin on the throne of Ur, as the empire begins to disintegrate.
c. 2,051 B.C.E. The Lord God gives Abram a laugh (i.e. “ha”), thereby converting his former name of Abram into Abraham. Meanwhile, Sarai trades in her “i” for an “h” and promptly gets pregnant with Isaac. It’s absolutely phenomenal what a name change can do for a person! Of course, Abraham went off half-cocked, celebrating the name change by circumcising every male in his household, employ, and supposedly every male in the vicinity. Strange man this Abraham.
c. 2,047 B.C.E. Ibbi-Sin replaced Shu-Sin. The western provinces begin to tilt increasingly toward Marduk.
c. 2,042 B.C.E. Leading his followers, Marduk marched on Sumer, and enthroned himself in Babylon. The fighting then spread to central Mesopotamia. Nippur’s Hold of Holies was defiled in the process, and Enlil demanded punishment for Marduk and Nabu. Enki opposed this, but his son, Nergal, sided with Enlil. Then as Nabu marshaled his Canaanite followers to capture the Spaceport, all hell broke loose.
The Anunnaki had become very aware of the threat to their spaceport from the massed armies in southern Canaan. The newly named Abraham might have helped to turn the tide for the patriarchal gods, but as had become evident to the Anunnaki over the centuries, the flood of humanity could sometimes dictate events and circumstances contrary to the wishes of the gods.
The corollary is that it would be simple, for example, for a man to kill a single ant. But if that same man was faced with army ants on the move, then he would almost certainly be overwhelmed. The same applied to the Anunnaki with their long lives and great weapons. And now their spaceport was threatened by a hoard of humans!
The result? The Great Anunnaki approved the use of nuclear weapons! Sodom and Gomorrah were bombed with atomic weapons and thereafter wiped from the face of the earth!
Ninurta and Nergal destroyed the Sinai spaceport and the errant Canaanite cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. It was a devastating act, and had horrendous consequences.
c. 2,041 B.C.E. The winds carried the resulting radioactive cloud to Sumer. People died a terrible death, animals perished, the water was poisoned, and the soil became barren. Sumer and its great civilization laid prostrate. The gods themselves were forced to evacuate in the emergency conditions. One of the ancient Sumerian texts relates in lamentations of the end of the Sumerian Civilization:
It is, perhaps, a bit sad to end an Episode with the Atomic-bombing of Sodom and Gomorrah, and worse yet, the end of the Sumerian Civilization that we have come to love and appreciate so much. Nevertheless, such is the way of the world, particularly a world run by the Anunnaki. In the meantime, we can console ourselves with looking forward to the next episode of these Annals, when we will attempt answers to such gems as:
For the answers to these and many other fascinating questions, stay tuned for the next exciting Episode.
Episode IX -- The Wars of the Gods
Episode XI -- Ages in Chaos
The Library of ialexandriah
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