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Prior Extraterrestrial Visitations

New -- 1 May 2007


Analyses concerning intelligent extraterrestrial visitations to the planet Earth tend to limit themselves to the the feasibility of such beings overcoming various physical barriers in order to reach the Earth and the apparent lack of their presence on Earth in modern times. Modern physics and astrophysics now provide theories which answer the first question while simultaneously strongly suggesting humans should already have encountered such aliens. Meanwhile, detailed examination of ancient Sumerian, Egyptian and Biblical records provides ample evidence to suggest that the search for extraterrestrials must include the ancient gods and goddesses normally attributed to mythology but who may have been in reality living, historical, mortal beings with a superior technology. This application of recorded and validated ancient human history to modern questions of UFOs and extraterrestrial visitations answers numerous questions involving the apparent lack of current influence by extraterrestrials, their possible intentions, the potential for “leaky embargoes”, and numerous other relevant considerations. It will be shown that extraterrestrials arrived on Earth a long time ago, had an enormous influence on human development and history, have withdrawn from overt influence in relatively modern times, and may well be continuing to covertly influence earthly affairs at the present time.

1. Introduction

The subject of extraterrestrial colonization or visitation of the planet Earth is a recurrent topic in scientific and other investigative circles. Such discussions are enhanced by the potentially enormous significance of such events and their inevitable impact upon the affairs of human civilization. Such paradigm-shaking events may be in the present, the near-future, or even more significantly may have already occurred in the past. The latter is, in fact, the arena in which there may already be substantial evidence for prior extraterrestrial visitation and/or colonization. Furthermore, any prior visitations would be related to the present or near-future in terms of generating expectations of continuing visitations.

The physical ability of extraterrestrial intelligences to make their way to the Earth has traditionally been the prime argument against any past, present, or future visitation. But as Puthoff, et al have noted (1), there are multiple arguments for showing that current theories of physics and astrophysics do not prohibit extraterrestrial visitations. These same theories suggest that the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe is entirely plausible. According to these authors, the “We are alone” hypothesis is “now incompatible with the infinite universe and random self-sampling assumption consistent with inflation theory.”

According to these authors, regardless of the assumptions of the number of other alien civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy, the Earth along with all of the other habitable planets in the galaxy should have been visited and/or colonized within relatively small timescales in comparison to the age of the universe. This high probability of contact between alien civilizations and the inhabitants of planet Earth has led to what has been referred to as “Fermi’s paradox”, which postulates the possibility of prior contact being significant but where there appears to be no current involvement. The question that arises is: “Where are they?” (2)

2. Where are they?

This question might be more accurately phrased as: “Where is the evidence which shows the current and/or past involvement of extraterrestrials on the planet Earth? If the definition of “past” includes any time period from days to tens, thousands, or even millions of years before the present, what is the plausibility of prior extraterrestrial visitations or colonizations which have already occurred -- potentially in the distant past -- and whose consequences may or may not be relevant to the present era?

Scholars such as Puthoff, et al (1) have tentatively concluded that “we actually do belong to a large [galactic] civilization but are unaware of that fact”, and that “reports of unknown objects in the skies, appearing as some sort of flying craft and exhibiting extraordinary manoeuvres” should be credited with far more insight than many skeptics would otherwise grant.

Our awareness of the existence or presence of extraterrestrials may depend upon both our lack of ability to perceive – as in not believing is not seeing – as well as any extraterrestrial of note potentially preferring to remain unnoticed. The likelihood, for example, of any intelligent species traveling the galaxy in sleek, shiny spacecraft -- and therefore obvious to potential enemies -- is almost nil from any rational viewpoint. The more likely scenario is that an intelligent extraterrestrial would travel in craft disguised as comets, asteroids or even small moons, and thereby escape the more obvious forms of detection. This reasoning would suggest that the critical question concerning extraterrestrials might very well evolve from “Where are they?” to “Why can't we detect them?”

3. Extraterrestrial Intentions

Of the two possibilities, the most likely answer is that extraterrestrials in general do not wish to be detected – except possibly under circumstances in which they control the degree of contact. If this is the case, and if extraterrestrials are interested in avoiding detection, one must ask, “Why?” What are the intentions of the extraterrestrials? If visitations are nowcovertly occurring, or have occurred in the past, why is it we don't know about them?

Hypotheses as to why extraterrestrials currently in our space might not have contacted us overtly include the zoo, nursery, quarantine, leaky embargo, and other manifestations of what amounts to a “neutrally benevolent ethical level overall” on behalf of the extraterrestrials. (1) This supposition of a directive to prohibit interference upon other cultures when such contact might prematurely bring to an end their continuing evolution may or may not have any validity for extraterrestrials. It may instead relate to a human need for extraterrestrials to have human ethics or morality – as opposed to extraterrestrials who may in fact lack compassionate restraint or may not have our interests at heart.

Furthermore, extraterrestrial intentions need not involve a single agenda. Given the potential or probability for extraterrestrial colonization and/or visitation, it should be clear that more than one extraterrestrial race may have made contact with Earth, and that furthermore any single extraterrestrial civilization which has made contact may have conflicting agendas within their own societies.

Accordingly, the extraterrestrial treatment of Earth’s inhabitants are more likely to be the combined effect of a variety of agendas, some of which may be benevolent and some which may be considerably less so. Some extraterrestrial agendas, furthermore, may be more prone to overt contact with humans while others may be notably more covert in their dealings. Conflict between different extraterrestrial agendas may also dominate the issue – even if we are unaware, for the moment, of what might be an ongoing conflict among ETs.

4. Prior Visitations

The timescales envisioned by diffusion modeling for contact of humans by an ET race would have made visitations much more likely during the earlier and longer periods of human habitation on the planet Earth than, for example, during the most recent two thousand years. Extraterrestrials of various races may have in fact come and gone prior to the ancestors of modern humans even coming down from the trees. They may also have had conflicts or wars before or during the earliest stages of human development. These conflicts may in turn have been the motivation for a temporary or longer term withdrawal from their overt influence over Earth prior to or during mankind's ascendancy.

Any discussion of prior visitations before the advent of man might appear largely academic, except possibly in terms of a panspermia theory of intentional seeding. Such seeding might indeed be relevant to the development of mankind, but it doesn't necessarily imply a continuing intervention in the affairs of men. The exception, of course, might be in the form of a return by the extraterrestrials to check on the state of their garden.

Of more potential import, however, is the possibility of an extraterrestrial colonization and/or visitation in more recent geologic times such that the ET contact occurred within the time frame of human history. This would include the scenario of an established presence of the extraterrestrials on the planet Earth prior to man’s ascendancy but which also overlapped the time periods wherein man began his history. Obviously any long term colonization and/or visitation by an extraterrestrial race extending over thousands of years would likely leave a distinctive mark on the history of mankind, provided only that human civilization in its earliest incarnations arose prior to the departure or withdrawal of the extraterrestrials and any influence they might have exerted on human affairs.

The argument put forth in this paper is that the ancient literature of human civilization (primarily Sumerian) describes in some detail precisely such a scenario as provided in the latter paragraph. The outline of such an argument can be summarized by the following:

  • Extraterrestrials arrived on the Earth potentially hundreds of thousands of years ago with the intent to establish a presence on the planet;
  • These same extraterrestrials were extremely long lived, as compared to the life spans of any member of the genus, Homo;
  • These extraterrestrials performed genetic manipulation on one species of the Earth’s inhabitants at the time -- most likely Homo erectus – and thereby created proto-humans;
  • These same extraterrestrials, with conflicting agendas among themselves, ruled over humans for tens (perhaps hundreds) of thousands of years; and
  • Roughly two thousand six hundred years ago, these extraterrestrials withdrew from overt control of humans.

Such a schematic of a prior extraterrestrial visitation to the planet Earth is not only evidenced by ancient literature, but by the continuing influence and the after effects of this prior overt contact with human civilization.

5. Anunnaki

The Sumerian Civilization is considered by most scholars as the oldest human civilization on Earth, arising in the lower Tigris-Euphrates region (modern day Southern Iraq), ending roughly 2000 BCE (Before Current Era – 4000 years ago from today), and beginning thousands of years prior to that time. This civilization appeared seemingly out of nowhere as a highly advanced, thriving culture circa 4000 BCE (although the Sumerians as a culture may have arrived as early as 8500 BCE, or even much earlier). In what is considered by some scholars “the most crucial event in human history” (3), the Sumerians developed a highly sophisticated system of irrigation and agriculture, quickly established magnificent cities, advanced governing laws, and a written language. It was as if these humans had help in developing their civilization!

The Sumerian ancient literature included the Anunnaki, in all respects the gods and goddesses (and lesser deities) of this ancient civilization.

“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose... There were nephilim in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.” -- Genesis 6:1-4 [emphasis added]

Nephilim is often translated as “giants”, a legitimate and possibly appropriate interpretation but one which may be only partially accurate. A better definition might be “those who came down”, “those who descended”, or “those who were cast down.” The Anunnaki of ancient Sumerian texts are similarly defined as “those who from heaven to earth came”. Sitchin (4), Gardner (5), and Bramley (6) have all identified the Nephilim as the Anunnaki, although the term may apply more specifically to essentially the rank and file of these particular extraterrestrials.

Virtually all open-minded historical and theological scholars agree that the Old Testament’s Book of Genesis was extracted from older Sumerian records, circa 600 BCE. The Enuma Elish (the Sumerian Epic of Creation) and Genesis have a variety of common elements. Stories of a Great Flood and Deluge are also common to both Sumerian and Biblical accounts. An inevitable conclusion is that the Anunnaki were as real as Noah, Moses or Abraham.

Laurence Gardner (5) has written: “Every item of written and pictorial attestation confirms that the ancient Sumerians were absolutely sincere about the existence of the Anunnaki, and those such as Enki, Enlil, Nin-khursag and Inanna fulfilled earthly functions with designated community duties. They were patrons and founders; they were teachers and justices; they were technologists and kingmakers. They were jointly and severally venerated as archons and masters, but there were certainly not idols of religious worship as the ritualistic gods of subsequent cultures became. In fact, the word which was eventually translated to become ‘worship’ was avod, which meant quite simply, ‘work’. The Anunnaki presence may baffle historians, their language may confuse linguists and their advanced techniques may bewilder scientists, but to dismiss them is foolish. The Sumerians have themselves told us precisely who the Anunnaki were, and neither history nor science can prove otherwise.”

The Sumerian records recorded in great detail the stories of the Anunnaki, and among these, that of Enki, Enlil, Ninki, Inanna, Utu, Ningishzida, Marduk, and many others. Chief among these stories was the continuing conflict between Enki and Enlil, the sons of the supreme “god” of the time, Anu. Much of ancient human history, and the Biblical Genesis, can be explained as the militant differences between these two half-brothers, and how they affected the life of all sentient beings on Earth.

The Anunnaki were more than just a pair of squabbling half-brothers. They were the council of Gods and Goddesses, who periodically met to consider their future actions with respect to each other, and probably as a smaller, nondescript item on their agenda, the fate of mankind. The Anunnaki, depending upon the context, were the Nephilim, the gods that Abraham’s father, Terah, was reputed to have served (according to the book of Joshua), the fallen angels, the lesser individuals of the race from which Anu, Enki, Enlil, Inanna and the other notables had sprung, and the “judges” over the question of life and death. They were in fact the bene ha-elohim, which translates as “the sons of the gods”, or equally likely, “the sons of the goddesses.” For example, from Psalms 82:

“Jehovah takes his stand at the Council of El to deliver judgment among the elohim.”

“You too are gods, sons of El Elyon, all of you.”

According to Zecharia Sitchin and his interpretation of ancient Sumerian texts (4), the Anunnaki were extraterrestrials (aka “angels”), who were an extremely long-lived race, potentially living as long as 500,000 years. Laurence Gardner (5) reduces this to more on the order of 50,000 years, and notes specifically that the Anunnaki were not immortal. He point out that no records are currently extant which relate to their natural deaths, but the violent deaths of Apsu, Tiamat, Mummu, and Dumu-zi are provided in some detail. While Sitchin and Gardner may disagree with the extent of the long lives of the Anunnaki and other specifics, it is clear that these gods and goddesses, baring accidents or “Anunnaki-cide”, lived a very long time. It might also be theorized that because of their long lives, they did not quite move in “the fast lane” -- at least to the extent humans do.

This difference in the pace of a lifestyle could be fundamentally important in that the human life span -- while enormously brief as compared to the Anunnaki -- might be compensated in the form of humans possessing an ability to achieve a great deal in a relatively short time. The creativity of a shortened and thus highly motivated lifespan is likely to be enormously greater than that of an Anunnaki resting on his or her laurels. This may also relate to why the Anunnaki bother with mankind. Humans may act as workers to accomplish the Anunnaki’s agenda but an accelerated creativity may be even more desirable from the extraterrestrial view.

6. Homo sapiens sapiens

The connection between humans and the Anunnaki is much more profound than that of masters and slaves, however. The evidence from Sumerian literature and records strongly advocates the concept that Adam and Eve and their ancestors were created by the genetic engineering and mixing of the DNA of the Anunnaki and that of Homo erectus, the reigning progenitor of the species of man at the time. The primary reason for this feat of genetic engineering may have been because the Anunnaki needed someone to work the mines in search of gold and other Precious Metals. (4, 5, 6)

A significant event in the geologic record is the abrupt appearance a quarter of a million years ago of Homo sapiens sapiens. In a revolutionary (and still controversial) article, Rebecca Cann (7) asserted that roughly 275,000 years ago, a single, solitary woman living in sub-Saharan Africa became the world’s one common grandmother. Based on restriction mapping of Mitochondria DNA (which can only be passed maternally from the mother), the conclusion was of a single mother of mankind, i.e. “Eve”.

More recently, R. L. Dorit, et al (8) have found no intra specific polymorphisms whatsoever in a gene paternally inherited, and concluded a date of the last common male ancestor of all humans currently on the planet to be 270,000 B.C.E. Michael Brown, in his book, The Search for Eve (9), greatly expanded on these themes, tracing “Eve’s” birthday to between 140,000 and 290,000 years ago, and the origin and spreading out of Africa of her descendants between 90,000 and 180,000 years ago.

While the designation of a single man (Adam) or woman (Eve) is typically applied in the literature, the more relevant issue is that anatomically modern human beings, Homo sapiens sapiens, evolved from a more primitive ancestor, generally thought to be an archaic form of Homo sapiens several hundred thousands of years ago. Many anthropologists believe this aspect of evolution happened in Africa and that the subspecies spread to other parts of the world, replacing more primitive forms of humans such as Homo erectus.”

More importantly, the evidence suggests that the group of extraterrestrials called the Anunnaki were responsible for the genetic experiments (circa 250,000 B.C.E.) which transformed Homo erectus into Homo sapiens. This was done by combining the Anunnaki DNA with the DNA of the early ancestor of man. From there, presumably, man further evolved into the modern version, Homo sapiens sapiens, potentially due to continuing intervention by the Anunnaki.

The implication, of course, is that there is no “missing link” in the evolution of mankind from the apes, but in fact a quantum leap, an intervention by an extraterrestrial intelligence. As has been reported elsewhere in some detail (10) evolutionary theory and intervention by an intelligence (the latter aspect more general and valid than any so-called “Intelligent Design”) are not competing theories so much as complementary ones. Evolution continues on a more or less routine basis, but nothing in evolution prohibits occasional interventions. It is obvious, for example, that mankind is intervening in the normal process of evolution, sometimes to the detriment of various species, i.e. neither by design nor particularly intelligent.

7. The History of Gods and Men

Laurence Gardner, in his book, Genesis of the Grail Kings, (5) has provided a detailed history of the legacy of Adam and Eve, their relationship to the Sumerian Anunnaki, the patriarchs of the Old Testament and the extraterrestrial connections throughout the earliest histories of the human race. His conclusions are essentially the same as Sitchin’s (4). For example, The Book of Genesis which was written shortly after 600 B.C.E. and likely based on the Sumerian texts, makes it clear mankind was created by extraterrestrial being(s), which certain religions later identified as a single “God”. This singular interpretation, however, does not reconcile the fact that there may have been more than one “god”, a fact which is mentioned specifically in Genesis 1:26, 3:22, 6:2, and 6:4.

An overriding aspect of the Anunnaki/human relationship can be attributed to the conflict between the Sumerian EN.KI. (“Lord of Earth”) and EN.LIL. (“Lord of the Command”). According to the ancient Sumerian texts, these two were the sons of the Sumerian god, Anu, the “supreme Lord of the Sky” and the reigning titular head of the Sumerian Pantheon. With different mothers, the two were half-brothers who for various reasons had very different agendas. Furthermore, ancient Sumerian artifacts and literature attest in some detail to the fact that it was Enki who (with the critical assistance of his half-sister, Nin-khursag) created Adam and Eve. It was Enlil, on the other hand, who created “Edin”.

From a biblical perspective, Enki was the serpent in the garden, who urged Adam and Eve to eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil (which could be construed as being infinitely beneficial to their spiritual growth). It was Enlil, who drove them out of Edin, while Enki was there to clothe them. It is worth noting that Zecharia Sitchin (4) claims that the biblical word for “snake” is nahash, which comes from the root word NHSH, and which means “to decipher, to find out” -- in other words, Enki, the God of Wisdom.

In the time of Noah, it was Enlil -- supposedly because the humans made too much noise and disturbed his sleep (4) – who refused to warn the humans or do anything to save them or help them to save themselves. Enki, on the other hand, apparently against orders of the Anunnaki assembly, provided the boat plans for Noah to build his Ark and thus saved him, his family (and likely a fair number of helpful artisans and their families) and the seed of other living things.

In the Sumerian texts, we have stories of Enki and Enlil with some portions exclusive to one or the other. But in Genesis, Enlil seemingly reigns supreme with Abraham and his descendants serving Enlil and following his precepts. The Egyptians, on the other hand, were Enki’s protégés who followed good food management practices during the devastating droughts around the time of Jacob and Joseph, and were therefore equipped to aid Enlil’s followers.

Circa 2000 BCE, during an all out war of Enki’s humans against Enlil’s humans -- complete with all manner of diplomatic subterfuge in the mix -- Sodom and Gomorrah took the brunt of the action and were destroyed by what was apparently nuclear weaponry. The (radioactive) fallout of their actions blowing westward across the Arabian desert then resulted in the final destruction of the Sumerian civilization (circa 2000 B.C.E), the details of which are recorded in the Sumerian and Biblical literatures.

As Laurence Gardner (5) phrased it: Enlil “instigated the Semitic invasions which led to the ‘confusion of tongues’ and the fall of Sumer. It was he who had… leveled the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah -- not because of their wickedness, as related in Genesis (18-19), but because of the wisdom and insight of their inhabitants, as depicted in the Coptic Paraphrase of Shem.” It was Enlil “who had removed the Israelites from their homeland and [sent] them into seventy years of captivity by King Nebuchadnezzar II and his five Babylonian successors down to King Belshazzer (545-539 BC).”

This latter event is critical as another turning point in the Enki and Enlil warfare as it reflects a time, circa 600 B.C.E., when Enlil was stepping back from the overt control of Earth (possibly due to the really bad choices concerning Sodom and Gomorrah and their aftermath). Stepping back from overt control, however, does not necessarily imply stepping back from covert control!

8. 600 B.C.E.

In the Sixth Century BCE something absolutely extraordinary happened. Prior to this time, religion for mankind was essentially based on doing what the Gods and Goddesses (aka, the “Anunnaki”) wanted man to do. If a god (or goddess) wanted you to go to war, you went to war. If not, you went at your own very substantial risk (and often paid a heavy price).

At the beginning of the sixth millennium BCE, however, true philosophy (ethics, individual responsibility and personal relationship with God) became available to the mainstream of societies. This time period can be illustrated in part by noting a few dates of the more influential philosophers and thinkers. For example:

Zarathustra (627-585 BCE) promulgated the Dualism of Good and Evil,

Lao-Tzu (604-531 BCE) wrote the Tao de Ching,

Confucius (580?-479 BCE) “flaunted his agnosticism”,

Buddha (565-483 BCE) taught a “godless wisdom”,

Xenophanes (550 BCE) criticized Greek polytheism,

Pythagoras (550 BCE) taught sacred geometry and mathematically based science,

Isaiah (550 BCE) taught “the first true monotheism in history”,

Theagenes (525 BCE) “rationalized Homer”, and

Hecataeus (500 BCE) “mocked the Greek myths”.

Circa 500 BCE the Olmecs brought forth their calendar and mathematics; Heraclitus talked about universal flux and rhythm, Parmenides wrote about the oneness of being, Empedocles about the unity of opposites, and Democritus about atoms and progress. Continuing along this track, history encountered Thucydides (400), the Trial of Socrates (399), Plato’s Academy (387), Aristotle (335), Indian Artha-sastra (politically rationalistic), Zhuangzi (mystical idealism), Shang Yang (legalism), Euclid (geometry), the latter all arriving in the Fourth Century BCE.

In Chinese History, 1000 BCE marks the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty, which emphasized very strongly the Emperor’s “mandate of heaven” and “obedience to Gods”. But beginning in 772 BCE in Southern China (and extending until 481 BCE), the so-called “Springs and Autumns Period” began. This consisted of eight lesser periods, when life and limb were cheap, barbaric, and toward the end, “philosophy became more important than war.” This is when Lao Tzu and Confucius arrived on the scene.

Meanwhile, Judaism -- which traditionally began during the time of Abraham (circa 2000 BCE) -- was in its early beginnings primarily concerned with Yahweh, Yahweh’s chosen people and those same chosen people doing precisely what Yahweh wanted them to do. According to Encyclopedia Britannica (11): “The prophets were first and foremost teachers of religion, not of ethics. Their supreme concern was the will of God, rather than the rule of righteousness.” However, in the 6th century BCE Jeremiah and Ezekiel began to emphasize “individual responsibility and sought to restore to the people a sense of personal relationship with God, which they had lost under the impact of pagan influence.” “This was a time of general national disintegration, when religious and social organizations were rapidly breaking up.”

It is likely that the “sense of personal relationship with God” which Jeremiah and Ezekiel wanted to “restore” may have originated in the earliest Sumerian ethics, where doing right was valued above obeying the dictates of any god or goddess. Said ethics likely came down from Enki. It is Enki who should be considered to be the true father of mankind, the first to arrive on earth and likely the Anunnaki who set down the early ingredients of civilization. Further evidence for this derives from the ancient Sumerian story of the Sumerian goddess, Inanna “stealing” the attributes of civilization -- The Me -- from Enki.

Laurence Gardner, in Genesis of the Grail Kings (5), has noted that “there is no documented reference [other than Biblical] to the ‘one’ Jehovah god, as such, before” 600 BCE. “Onwards from c.586 BC, when the Israelites were captive in Babylonia, they began to compile the Old Testament. The Genesis stories which they grafted onto their ancient history came out of Mesopotamia, and much else in the OT was added later from Palestinian and Egyptian records.” Gardner goes on to describe the relevant Jewish History which leads him to the conclusion that: “Noah, Abraham and the patriarchs were all part of the original Elohim/ Anunnaki culture and knew nothing about the One god ideal that was to be invented and thrust upon their memory centuries later.” (5)

“The earliest phase of Hinduism is rooted in the religion of the Vedas,” which was composed between 1000 and 600 BCE. Essentially appendices, “the Aranyakas (circa 600 BCE) and Upanishads (circa 600 to 300 BCE) respectively expound the symbolism of the more recondite rites and speculate on the nature of the universe and man’s relation to it. When Vedic religion gradually evolved into Hinduism between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE, these texts taken collectively became the most sacred literature of Hinduism.” [12]

It is a very empowering concept for those performing rites to actually understand the meaning(s) of the rites. It is also important for humans to comprehend how man relates to the rest of the universe. “By perhaps 600 BCE, the new doctrine of the continual process of reincarnation (samsura) was known to comparatively small circles of ascetics and was coupled with the idea of karma, the fundamental law of cause and effect by which the evildoer is reborn in unhappy conditions. It spread very rapidly, and seems to have been accepted almost universally in the time of Buddha (6th century). Its origin and rapid diffusion are not yet satisfactorily explained.” [12] [emphasis added]

On the other hand, an origin and rapid diffusion is readily explained if one assumes a “god” such as Enki – once relieved of the major interference from Enlil – may have determined that humans would have access to the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and that he [Enki] had the means to spread the word. In effect, his charge was to eliminate the worship of gods and goddesses and instead provide humans with the first inklings of true philosophy. It is in this regard that we encounter Lao Tzu (b. c. 600 BCE), Confucius (b. 551 BCE), Zarathustra (born c. 630 BCE), and Gautama Buddha (b. 563 BCE), all of whose philosophies both reject the pantheon of antiquity and simultaneously proclaim non-exclusive human philosophies that are not dependent upon the will of gods and goddesses but upon human free will to make individual choices.

600 BCE is thus a major turning point in the history of humans and one likely initiated by Enki. Furthermore, as the legitimate father of mankind, he appears to have taken his parenting seriously and wisely stepped back from the day-to-day, micro-management of mankind. This fundamental shift could explain why the Anunnaki, the extraterrestrials who had already arrived on earth and greatly influenced its history – and specifically the “evolution” of its human residents – may have stepped back from overt control of mankind. This may also explain why the extraterrestrials are apparently not in evidence today (save by means of only occasional glimpses, for example, UFOs).

Enki may have decided to use a temporary lull in the wars of gods and men to provide human civilization with a religion of philosophies and more than just a religion of obedience to the whims of any member of a dysfunctional family of extraterrestrials (aka gods and goddesses). Enki may have taken the position of allowing his creations enough free will to hang themselves, i.e. let them grow up without constant supervision and/or interference. Parents do that sort of thing.

It is highly unlikely, however, that Enki would be allowed to operate in a completely autonomous fashion. Based on their history the Anunnaki are not so inclined. They may, however, have switched from their previous overt dictatorial influence to one of covert and conspiratorial means. In effect, for the last two and a half millennium, the anti-Enki faction(s) may have been very busy maintaining covert control over an obstinate and increasingly dangerous human race.

This latter statement is predicated on the idea that the human race is dangerous because humans breed like rabbits, develop extremely rapidly (a likely result of their comparatively short lives with respect to the very long lived Anunnaki) and may have the potential to outstrip their gods and goddesses in a host of ways. While an ant is trivially easy for a human to step on and dispatch to the hereafter, army ants are virtually unstoppable by just a few men. Similarly, large masses of humankind may be considered to be dangerous to their overlords even when it is simplicity itself to eliminate specific humans on a one-on-one basis. Also, the potential for humans to take the next step in their evolution may be especially troublesome to those Anunnaki best described as control freaks.

Obviously, it is far easier to control a mass of humans if the humans have no idea that they are being controlled.

Current Era (C.E.)

The most fundamental question with respect to the Anunnaki is whether or not they’re still on Earth! Sitchin (4) has pointed out that he never said they left (and there is no evidence that they ever did). There was, however, an apparently fundamental Anunnaki policy shift circa 600 BCE wherein the overt, day-to-day interference in human affairs by the Anunnaki disappeared. There is also evidence to suggest that the current state of affairs may be temporary, and may be scheduled to end with the end of the Mayan Calendar on or about 2012. A.D.

From mankind’s point of view, the dysfunctional nature of the Anunnaki family and the continuing rivalry of Enki and Enlil may still be ongoing and having enormous effects on the quality of our lives.


It is logical to conclude that:

  • extraterrestrials have in fact visited/colonized Earth,
  • have withdrawn from overt control (for the time being),
  • may be continuing to influence humanity by means of periodic, covert visits and other means, and
  • humans may be caught between conflicting forces and agendas of various extraterrestrial agendas.

The Sumerian literature and records thus explain directly and by implication the reasons for what might best be described as a “leaky embargo” whereby humans are privy to some evidence of extraterrestrial visitation, but nothing concrete. It is also understandable now why this might be so. The Sumerian connection also explains much of human history (including the sea change circa 600 BCE), the evolution of the species, a relatively detailed description of at least one species of extraterrestrials, the potential for various, competing factions in human society at the present time, and a whole host of other implications. Much of the discussions and arguments concerning extraterrestrials, UFOs, and similar anomalous phenomena can in fact be explained by the Sumerian records.

Ultimately, we must conclude that, “We have met the extraterrestrials and they are... well, not us exactly; more like our half-ancestors (with Homo erectus).


  • H. E. Puthoff, B. Maccabee, B. Haisch, and J. Deardorff, “Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation,” Journal British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 58, pp. 43-50, 2005.
  • S. Webb, “If the Universe is Teeming with Aliens… Where is Everybody? Fifty Solutions to the Fermi Paradox and the Problem of Extraterrestrial Life,” Copernicus Books, New York, 2002.
  • The Age of God-Kings , Time Life Books, New York, 1987.
  • Z. Sitchin, The 12th Planet, 1976, The Wars of Gods and Men, 1985, Genesis Revisited, 1990, Divine Encounters, 1995, Avon Books, New York.
  • L. Gardner, Genesis of the Grail Kings, Bantam Press, New York, 1999.
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  • Michael Brown, The Search for Eve, Harper Perennial, New York, 1990.
  • Dan S. Ward, “Survival of the Fittest”, and “Creative Evolution”, available on the World Wide Web at http://www.halexandria.org/dward759.htm as of April 2006.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica , Vol 13, pg 103, 1966.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol 11, pg 507, 1966.



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