Puthoff [1] has explored a “conceptually simple, classical model” of a proposal by Sakharov; “namely, that gravitation is not a fundamental interaction at all, but rather an induced effect brought about by changes in the quantum-fluctuation energy of the vacuum when matter is present.” Puthoff shows that the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, can be determined by the equation:

**G = ****p**^{2}**c**^{5}** / [h ò**** ****w dw****] **

where the integral is taken from zero to **wc**, with ** **

**wc**** = [2p**^{2}**c**^{5}** / Gh ]**^{1/2}**.**

According to Puthoff, “one finds the leading term in the interaction potential, previously unexamined, to be Newton’s law with no free parameters to be fixed. Furthermore, the spectral energy density diverges as **w**^{3}, with the spectrum effectively cut off at a frequency roughly corresponding to the Planck frequency:

**wp**** = [2p****c**^{5}**/hG]**^{1/2}.

The spectral distribution *in an accelerated frame* is given as:

**r(****w) dw**** = [****w**^{2}**/p**^{2}**c**^{3}**] [1 + (a/w****c)**^{2}**] {(hw****/4****p) + hw****/[2****p {exp(2p****c****w/a) - 1}]} dw**

where **a** is the proper acceleration relative to a Lorentz frame. “Boyer points out that the additional contribution beyond the thermal (Planck) from is related to the space-time properties of an accelerating reference frame.” **T = ha/4****p**^{2}**ck.** (Where **T** is the absolute temp and **k **is the Boltzman constant.) [1]

Inertia as formulated by Galileo (ca. 1638) was simply the property of a material object to either remain at rest or in a uniform motion in the absence of external forces. In his first law of motion, Newton (ca. 1687) merely restated the Galilean proposition. However, in his second law, Newton expanded the concept of inertia into a fundamental quantitative property of matter. Since that time, there has been only one noteworthy attempt to associate an underlying origin of inertia of an object with something external to that object, and that has been __Mach’s Principle__ -- the term actually being coined by Einstein. It was argued by Mach (ca. 1883) that the local property of inertia must somehow asymptotically be a functiion of the cosmic distribution of all other matter.

Puthoff, et al [2] “propose the interpretation that inertia is an electromagnetic resistance arising from the known spectral distortion of the ZPF in *accelerated* frames. The proposed concept also suggests *a physically rigorous version of Mach’s principle*.” Puthoff found that “the inertia of such a particle can also be calculated from the particle’s interaction with the ZPF. For the idealized case we have analyzed, the **F=ma** equation of motion appears to be related to the known distortion of the ZPF spectrum in an accelerated reference frame.” Furthermore, “the resistance to acceleration which defines the interia of matter appears to be an electromagnetic resistance (specifically Lorentz force) of the ZPF acting at the constituent particle (parton) level.” --thus the possibility of developing “a scientific version of Mach’s principle involving the universal ZPF.

“There appears a ubiquitous ZPF which can be regarded as a propagating electromagnetic field in free space with spectral energy density,”

**r(****w) dw**** = h****w**^{3}**/4p**^{3}**c**^{3}** dw**.

“The real issue of whether this field should be regarded as real or virtual has been an ongoing debate in quantum theory.” [2]

If “virtual” occurs only within the framework of the __Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle__, and if the so-called virtual fluctuations are in fact interactions and energy/momentum exchanges with the Machian universe, then the distinction between “real” and “virtual” is non-existent!

Meanwhile, with respect to the spectral distribution in an accelerated frame given by Puthoff [1] [see above], “Upon analyzing the force **F** that the ZPF exerts per constituent parton in an accelerated frame, it has been found that this force is directly proportional to and directed opposite to the acceleration vector **a**.” “Newton’s law of motion, **F=ma,** may be formulated from the ordinary electrodynamics including the ZPF via the techniques of SED [stochastic electrodynamics] in the sense that the electrodynamic **F(a) **relationship predicts an inertial mass, per parton, of:

**m****i = [hwp/2pc**^{2}**] (G****wp****)**,

where **G** is the Abraham-Lorentz damping constant of the underlying oscillating parton, and **wp **is the Planck frequency.” “*The inertia effect here explored appears primarily because of the distortion of the ZPF vector components at very high frequencies*.” [2] [*emphasis *added]

__Connective Physics__** **__Inertial Propulsion__** **__Levitation__

Forward to:

__Davis Mechanics__ __Davis and Stine__** **__Stardriver____ __

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References:

[1] “Gravity as a Zero-Point-Fluctuation Force,” Puthoff, H.E., *Physical Review A,* Vol 39, No. 5, March 1, 1989, pg 2333.

[2] “Inertia as a Zero-Point-Field Lorentz Force,” Puthoff, H.E., Rueda, A., and Haisch, B., *Physical Review A,* Vol 40, No. 2, February 1994, pg 678.

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